Cerebrovascular pathology in Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease
© The Author(s). 2017
Received: 17 October 2017
Accepted: 21 November 2017
Published: 1 December 2017
People with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for developing Alzheimer disease (AD) with age. Typically, by age 40 years, most people with DS have sufficient neuropathology for an AD diagnosis. Interestingly, atherosclerosis and hypertension are atypical in DS with age, suggesting the lack of these vascular risk factors may be associated with reduced cerebrovascular pathology. However, because the extra copy of APP leads to increased beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) accumulation in DS, we hypothesized that there would be more extensive and widespread cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) with age in DS relative to sporadic AD. To test this hypothesis CAA, atherosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis were used as measures of cerebrovascular pathology and compared in post mortem tissue from individuals with DS (n = 32), sporadic AD (n = 80) and controls (n = 37). CAA was observed with significantly higher frequencies in brains of individuals with DS compared to sporadic AD and controls. Atherosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis were rare in the cases with DS. CAA in DS may be a target for future interventional clinical trials.
People with Down syndrome (DS) are at higher risk for developing Alzheimer disease (AD), which is thought to be primarily due to the overexpression of amyloid precursor protein [19, 46]. Beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are typically observed by 40 years of age (reviewed in , with dementia onset most typically occurring almost a decade later [26, 35, 36, 52]. Up to 55% of people with DS between 40 and 49 years of age develop dementia and the numbers rise to 77% in people 60–69 years of age (reviewed in ).
There is increasing recognition of the vascular contribution to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID; [33, 37]). The presence of cerebrovascular pathology may be a critical comorbidity that accelerates the age of onset of dementia and also leads to faster disease progression. In the general population, ~6%–45% of autopsy cases show mixed AD neuropathology with cerebrovascular pathology . Cerebrovascular pathology resulting from atherosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis may serve as a “second hit” necessary for conversion to dementia particularly when significant Aβ is present in the brain [33, 47]. Atherosclerosis is thought to be a major contributor to VCID as is arteriolosclerosis [1, 29, 33]. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is also observed frequently in AD [3, 15, 25, 38] and may lead to microhemorrhages and infarcts .
VCID in DS has been less well studied  but is thought to be rare based upon fewer vascular risk factors being present in DS (e.g. hypertension, atherosclerosis, smoking) . In a recent neuroimaging study using T2*and susceptibility weighted imaging, the location and number of microbleeds were evaluated in 91 nondemented and 26 individuals with DS . CAA in people with DS was present in 31% of symptomatic DS participants, which was similar to that observed in sporadic AD (38%). Microbleeds observed by neuroimaging may be larger than the smaller bleeds that can be observed at autopsy and may underrepresent the extent of this vascular pathology in DS. At autopsy, CAA has been reported in small autopsy studies of people with DS over the age of 55 years [30, 35] or in case reports [8, 18, 40] with CAA also containing post-translationally modified Aβ . However, the accumulation of CAA as a function of age in DS has yet to be explored. Extensive cerebrovascular hemorrhages and stroke are associated with CAA in DS [8, 18, 31, 39, 40, 43] in most studies but not in all [30, 35]; the majority of these studies are based on small autopsy series or case reports. Despite increased CAA in DS with age, VCID (or multi-infarct dementia as it was termed then ) is rare with only one case report in the literature of a 55-year old woman with DS.
It is important to note that people with DS show virtually no evidence for several of the risk factors for cerebrovascular pathology particularly atherosclerosis and hypertension [12, 20, 21, 41, 42, 61]. Thus, the purpose of our study was two-fold. First, we sought to characterize the frequency of cerebrovascular pathology (defined as atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis and CAA) in a series of autopsy cases with DS and AD with direct comparison to sporadic AD and nondemented controls. Second, we hypothesized that cerebrovascular pathology associated with atherosclerosis would be less frequent in DS relative to non-DS AD cases. It is interesting to note that these vascular pathologies have not been directly compared in DS and AD cases.
Methods and methods
Characteristics of participants by cohort
AD (n = 80)
DS (n = 32)
Ctrl (n = 37)
Relative risk analysis
To determine the relative risk of each of the cerebrovascular outcome measures for the three cohorts, pathological outcomes were dichotomized to indicate the presence/absence of each cerebrovascular event. The risk of a positive finding was then calculated for each cohort, separately. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were based on the score test for binomial outcomes . Two AD cases were missing measures of atherosclerosis but other measures were available, thus they were excluded from the analysis when comparing atherosclerosis across groups.
To test the hypothesis that the DS cohort was less likely to have atherosclerosis or arteriolosclerosis but more likely to have CAA than sporadic AD and control cases, we used multinomial logistic regression. Atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis and CAA were graded on an ordinal scale: none, mild, moderate to severe. Cumulative logistic regression was used to model the probability of the severity of CAA findings based on the autopsy case cohort . The cumulative-logit models thus represent the full range of severity and allow for tests of whether each of the cohorts was associated with progressive degrees of severity for each of the cerebrovascular outcomes.
All computations were executed in the graphical and programming environment R .
NACC cerebrovascular outcomes by cohort showing the frequency and percentages for each level of severity
AD (n = 80)
DS (n = 32)
Ctrl (n = 37)
Relative risk of cerebrovascular outcome for participants with pairwise comparisons among the cohorts. Each outcome was dichotomized to indicate the presence versus absence of the finding. Relative risk was calculated and reported with the 95% confidence based on the score test for binomial outcomes
DS vs AD
AD (n = 80)
DS (n = 32)
Estimate (95% CI)
0.40 (0.20, 0.74)
0.00 (0.00, 0.24)
1.21 (0.96, 1.46)
DS vs Ctrl
Ctrl (n = 37)
DS (n = 32)
Estimate (95% CI)
0.30 (0.15, 0.55)
0.00 (0.00, 0.26)
4.60 (2.49, 9.29)
AD vs Ctrl
Ctrl (n = 37)
AD (n = 80)
Estimate (95% CI)
0.74 (0.56, 0.99)
1.05 (0.70, 1.68)
3.81 (2.07, 7.70)
Pairwise comparisons among cohorts for each of the vascular outcome measures. The odds ratio (OR) of a higher-level finding was compared among cohorts. Estimated odds used cumulative logistic regression to model the chance of higher-versus-lower severity outcome based on an indicator of the cohort. For arteriolosclerosis, only the AD versus Ctrl comparison could be reliably estimated
Odds Ratios (OR) among Cohorts
Est. (95% CI)
AD vs Ctrl
0.46 (0.22, 0.95)
AD vs Ctrl
0.46 (0.22, 0.95)
DS vs Ctrl
0.11 (0.04, 0.30)
DS vs AD
0.23 (0.09, 0.59)
AD vs Ctrl
1.08 (0.51, 2.32)
AD vs Ctrl
10.12 (3.94, 25.96)
DS vs Ctrl
30.88 (10.15, 93.99)
DS vs AD
3.05 (1.40, 6.67)
Atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis and age in DS, AD and controls
CAA severity increases with age in DS cases
Discussion and conclusions
We hypothesized that people with DS would have significantly more frequent and more severe CAA associated with overexpression of APP relative to sporadic AD and control cases but less cerebrovascular pathology typically associated with cardiovascular risk factors including atherosclerotic lesions and arteriolosclerosis. In the current study, as expected, we found: (1) the presence of CAA in DS was more frequent than in the AD and control cohorts; (2) that the DS cohort showed an increased probability of more severe CAA with age; and (3) atherosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis vascular pathology was uncommon in DS.
CAA in controls, AD and DS
The current study observed CAA in 87.1% of DS cases, 18.9% of controls and 72.2% of AD cases. This is significantly higher than a previous report using neuroimaging outcomes to detect microbleeds in a larger cohort . In a separate study, the frequency of CAA in a prospectively followed cohort of nondemented individuals without DS (n = 59 cases with an average age of 83.9 years at autopsy) has been reported as high as 62% . In contrast, in a NACC study of 140 nondemented control cases without AD neuropathology with an average age at death of 83.5 years, 7.5% exhibited CAA . The NACC study was consistent with the Medical Research Council of Cognitive Function and Ageing Study in England and Wales where 7% of 109 nondemented control cases (70–103 years) exhibit CAA . In contrast, the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study noted that 15.7% of control cases (n = 89, 70 years to over 90 years) had CAA . In studies of AD cases, consistently more frequent CAA is observed that range between 37%–83% of autopsy cases [22, 44, 49, 54]. Thus, the range of cases affected by CAA in our AD and control cohorts is not inconsistent with previous reports.
The presence of CAA in 87.1% of DS cases is high both relative to the AD cohort examined here as well as previous reports in nondemented controls and AD cases, suggesting that CAA may be a critical vascular pathology associated with aging in DS. A recent neuroimaging study using T2*-based MR outcome measures observed that CAA was present in 31% of cognitively impaired people with DS .
More frequent CAA is observed in autosomal dominant AD subjects, who also exhibit Aβ overproduction and develop early onset AD. In a study by Ringman and colleagues, autosomal dominant AD cases who were of similar age to the current cohort of DS autopsy cases (average age 53.5 years) showed more moderate to severe CAA (63.3%) as compared to older sporadic AD cases (39.2%, mean age 79.3 years) . In contrast, in rare autopsy cases of DS with partial trisomy 21, where APP is not overexpressed, AD neuropathology and CAA was absent even at 72 or 78 years of age at autopsy [19, 46]. Thus, higher levels of CAA in DS are most likely due to APP overexpression and consequent increased Aβ accumulation. CAA in people with DS is more consistent with the CAA prevalence in early onset autosomal dominant AD.
Arteriolosclerosis and Atherosclerosis in AD, controls and DS
Atherosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis were uncommon in the DS cohort, which may be due to their younger ages (50–59 years). In a NACC study of older nondemented autopsy cases lacking AD pathology, 77.6% of cases showed arteriolosclerosis and 82.9% showed atherosclerosis (n = 140, mean age 83.5 years) . In studies of nondemented autopsy cases under 70 years of age (50–70 years), 68.6% (n = 1008) were positive for arteriolosclerosis . Further, Ighodaro et al. showed using NACC autopsy data from cases at an average age of 50 years that only 20% exhibited arteriolosclerosis.
Implications of CAA in DS
The contribution of CAA pathology to the development of AD neuropathology and/or dementia is increasingly recognized as being critical [33, 55]. Further, cerebrovascular lesions may be one of the underlying causes of variable (and modest) clinical trial outcomes as they may be more or less engaged in individual patients and possibly blunting responses to Aβ interventions. In DS, the higher frequency of CAA is likely to lead to several possible outcomes: First, CAA can lead to vascular dysfunction including impaired constriction and dilation, which is consistent with reports of reduced FDG-PET with age in DS and also associated with cognitive decline . Second, CAA can lead to blood brain barrier disruptions and microhemorrhages [50, 58], which also may contribute (in addition to APP overexpression) to the earlier age of onset of dementia in people with DS. Interestingly, a recent review by Buss and colleagues suggests that despite the presence of CAA in DS, there appears to be less intracerebral hemorrhage suggesting possible protective mechanisms; this will be an exciting avenue of research for future studies .
It is important to consider some caveats to the current study, which include the use of observational data, the relatively small sample size of our DS cohort and the younger age of this cohort. Autopsy studies of DS are a challenge as the number of tissue donations are relatively small, thus our samples size is smaller relative to sporadic AD cohorts. Further, people with DS who volunteered for this research study and consented to autopsy may also represent a biased sample. Age is virtually impossible to control for in the comparison of these three groups as people with DS have a significantly younger age of onset of AD neuropathology and development of dementia.
The higher frequency of CAA in DS compared to sporadic AD is interesting in that cerebrovascular pathology in DS appears to have a unique signature, i.e. significant CAA and low or absent atherosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis, which could impact cognition and age of onset of dementia in DS. Weller et al. have suggested that CAA may impact therapeutic outcomes and may predispose people to vasogenic edema and hemorrhagic complications due to reduced drainage of Aβ associated with affected vessels . Experimental evidence by the same group shows that periarterial lymphatic drainage is impaired with age and CAA. With an increase in production of Aβ in DS it seems likely that CAA and the presence of Aβ plaques would form at a younger age and with less severity of arteriolosclerosis in DS than in sporadic AD. The present study supports the hypothesis that a life-long increase in production of Aβ in DS predisposes to an earlier onset of age-related impairment of periarterial elimination of Aβ from the brain and thus may accelerate the onset of the pathological features of AD  .
While the hypothesis of reduced periarterial elimination of Aβ from the brain is compelling, in DS it does not readily account for findings from other groups of Aβ’s role in cerebrovascular disease and plasma levels of Aβ. For example, Gomis and colleagues show that plasma Aβ1–40 levels are associated with cerebrovascular small vessel disease in acute lacunar stroke and suggest that vascular Aβ is primarily Aβ1–40, which alters endothelial functions . In DS, plasma data show that the risk of dementia in DS is increased as levels of Aβ1–42 decline but Aβ1–40 levels increase . As reviewed by Biffi and Greenberg, a high Aβ 40:42 ratio appears to be an important index of vascular amyloid formation . However, Carmona-Iragui and colleagues did not find differences in CSF Aβ40 that corresponded to microbleeds by neuroimaging in DS . Therefore, investigation of plasma markers and CAA presence in DS as related to clinical dementia may become an important avenue of investigation.
If we extend these findings in the context of considering possible interventions for people with DS to prevent AD, it will be important to target CAA pathology specifically. For example, there is a clinical trial of ponezumab (PF-04360365) that is specifically targeting CAA as a treatment for AD that may be very relevant for the DS population [5, 34]. Thus, CAA pathology in DS may be a significant factor to consider in the design of future clinical trials.
In future, it will be important to link neuropathological vascular findings with clinical outcomes (e.g. severity of dementia in DS) and to further explore the additional downstream pathologies associated with CAA. For example, the role of microhemorrhages in DS and their link to the extent of CAA in DS is as yet unknown. Further it will be interesting in future studies to distinguish CAA that is associated with capillary Aβ and associated CAA findings such as microinfarcts, superficial siderosis, etc. Neuroimaging may also provide novel insights for vascular pathology in DS as has been reported previously . Using T2* magnetic resonance imaging, Carmona-Iragui and colleagues observed CAA in 31% and 38%, respectively in people with DS who were nondemented compared with those with dementia. Linking neuroimaging outcomes to subsequent autopsy studies will be a challenge for studies of DS but should evolve over time.
The US National Institutes of Health supported this study through the following grants: National Institutes on Aging P50AG16573 (E.D., R C.K., W.W.P., I.T.L.); National Institutes on Aging R01AG 21912 (E.D., I.T.L.); National Institutes on Aging R01HD065160 (E.D., I.T.L.); National Institutes on Child Health and Development R01HD064993 (E.H., F.A.S.). The authors are grateful to the donors and families who contributed to the study.
The US National Institutes of Health supported this study through the following grants: National Institutes on Aging P50AG16573 (E.D., R C.K., W.W.P., I.T.L.); National Institutes on Aging R01AG 21,912 (E.D., I.T.L.); National Institutes on Aging R01HD065160 (E.D., I.T.L.); National Institutes on Child Health and Development R01HD064993 (E.H., F.A.S.).
Manuscript preparation and conceptualization (EH, FAS, ED, ITL), data analysis and interpretation (MJP), neuropathology (RCK, WP). All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Consent for autopsy was obtained from individuals enrolled in the study and was approved by the University of California Human Subjects Institutional Review Board.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Abner EL, Kryscio RJ, Schmitt FA, Fardo DW, Moga DC, Ighodaro ET et al (2017) Outcomes after diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in a large autopsy series. Ann Neurol 81(4):549–559View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Agresti A (2002) Categorical data analysis, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Attems J (2005) Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy: pathology, clinical implications, and possible pathomechanisms. Acta Neuropathol 110(4):345–359View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bakker EN, Bacskai BJ, Arbel-Ornath M, Aldea R, Bedussi B, Morris AW et al (2016) Lymphatic clearance of the brain: Perivascular, Paravascular and significance for neurodegenerative diseases. Cell Mol Neurobiol 36(2):181–194View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bales KR, O’Neill SM, Pozdnyakov N, Pan F, Caouette D, Pi Y et al (2016) Passive immunotherapy targeting amyloid-beta reduces cerebral amyloid angiopathy and improves vascular reactivity. Brain 139(Pt 2):563–577View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ballard C, Mobley W, Hardy J, Williams G, Corbett A (2016) Dementia in Down’s syndrome. Lancet Neurol 15(6):622–636View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beach TG, Wilson JR, Sue LI, Newell A, Poston M, Cisneros R et al (2007) Circle of Willis atherosclerosis: association with Alzheimer’s disease, neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Acta Neuropathol 113(1):13–21View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Belza MG, Urich H (1986) Cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Down’s syndrome. Clin Neuropathol 5(6):257–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Besser LM, Alosco ML, Ramirez Gomez L, Zhou XH, McKee AC, Stern RA et al (2016) Late-life vascular risk factors and Alzheimer disease neuropathology in individuals with normal cognition. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 75(10):955–962View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Biffi A, Greenberg SM (2011) Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: a systematic review. J Clin Neurol 7(1):1–9View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Braak H, Braak E (1991) Neuropathological stageing of Alzheimer-related changes. Acta Neuropathol 82(4):239–259View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brattstrom L, Englund E, Brun A (1987) Does Down syndrome support homocysteine theory of arteriosclerosis. Lancet 14(8529):391–392View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Buss L, Fisher E, Hardy J, Nizetic D, Groet J, Pulford L, et al. Intracerebral haemorrhage in Down syndrome: protected or predisposed? F1000Res. 2016;5. doi:10.12688/f1000research.7819.1. eCollection 2016.
- Carmona-Iragui M, Balasa M, Benejam B, Alcolea D, Fernandez S, Videla L et al (2017) Cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Down syndrome and sporadic and autosomal-dominant Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement 13:1251View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Charidimou A, Gang Q, Werring DJ (2012) Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy revisited: recent insights into pathophysiology and clinical spectrum. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 83(2):124–137View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Collacott RA, Cooper SA, Ismail IA (1994) Multi-infarct dementia in Down’s syndrome. J Intellect Disabil Res 38(Pt 2):203–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Davis DG, Schmitt FA, Wekstein DR, Markesbery WR (1999) Alzheimer neuropathologic alterations in aged cognitively normal subjects. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 58(4):376–388View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Donahue JE, Khurana JS, Adelman LS (1998) Intracerebral hemorrhage in two patients with Down’s syndrome and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Acta Neuropathol 95(2):213–216View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Doran E, Keator D, Head E, Phelan MJ, Kim R, Totoiu M et al (2017) Down syndrome, partial Trisomy 21, and absence of Alzheimer’s disease: the role of APP. J Alzheimers Dis 56(2):459–470View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Draheim CC, Geijer JR, Dengel DR (2010) Comparison of intima-media thickness of the carotid artery and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with versus without the Down syndrome. Am J Cardiol 106(10):1512–1516View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Draheim CC, McCubbin JA, Williams DP (2002) Differences in cardiovascular disease risk between nondiabetic adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. Am J Ment Retard 107(3):201–211View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ellis RJ, Olichney JM, Thal LJ, Mirra SS, Morris JC, Beekly D et al (1996) Cerebral amyloid angiopathy in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease: the CERAD experience, part XV. Neurology 46(6):1592–1596View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Frost JL, Le KX, Cynis H, Ekpo E, Kleinschmidt M, Palmour RM et al (2013) Pyroglutamate-3 amyloid-beta deposition in the brains of humans, non-human primates, canines, and Alzheimer disease-like transgenic mouse models. Am J Pathol 183(2):369–381View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Gomis M, Sobrino T, Ois A, Millan M, Rodriguez-Campello A, Perez de la Ossa N et al (2009) Plasma beta-amyloid 1-40 is associated with the diffuse small vessel disease subtype. Stroke 40(10):3197–3201View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grinberg LT, Thal DR (2010) Vascular pathology in the aged human brain. Acta Neuropathol 119(3):277–290View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Hartley D, Blumenthal T, Carrillo M, DiPaolo G, Esralew L, Gardiner K et al (2014) Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease: common pathways, common goals. Alzheimers Dement. 2015;11(6):700–9.Google Scholar
- Head E, Lott IT, Wilcock DM, Lemere CA (2016) Aging in Down syndrome and the development of Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology. Curr Alzheimer Res 13(1):18–29View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Hyman BT, Phelps CH, Beach TG, Bigio EH, Cairns NJ, Carrillo MC et al (2012) National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association guidelines for the neuropathologic assessment of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement 8(1):1–13View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ighodaro ET, Abner EL, Fardo DW, Lin AL, Katsumata Y, Schmitt FA et al (2017) Risk factors and global cognitive status related to brain arteriolosclerosis in elderly individuals. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 37(1):201–216View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ikeda S, Tokuda T, Yanagisawa N, Kametani F, Ohshima T, Allsop D (1994) Variability of beta-amyloid protein deposited lesions in Down’s syndrome brains. Tohoku J Exp Med 174(3):189–198View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jastrzebski K, Kacperska MJ, Majos A, Grodzka M, Glabinski A (2015) Hemorrhagic stroke, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, Down syndrome and the Boston criteria. Neurol Neurochir Pol 49(3):193–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jellinger KA (2013) Pathology and pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment-a critical update. Front Aging Neurosci 5:17View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kalaria RN (2016) Neuropathological diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia with implications for Alzheimer’s disease. Acta Neuropathol 131(5):659–685View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- La Porte SL, Bollini SS, Lanz TA, Abdiche YN, Rusnak AS, Ho WH et al (2012) Structural basis of C-terminal beta-amyloid peptide binding by the antibody ponezumab for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. J Mol Biol 421(4–5):525–536View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lai F, Williams MD (1989) A prospective study of Alzheimer disease in Down syndrome. Arch Neurol Chicago 46:849–853View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lautarescu BA, Holland AJ, Zaman SH (2017) The early presentation of dementia in people with Down syndrome: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Neuropsychol Rev 27(1):31–45View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Levine DA, Langa KM (2011) Vascular cognitive impairment: disease mechanisms and therapeutic implications. Neurotherapeutics 8(3):361–373View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Love S, Chalmers K, Ince P, Esiri M, Attems J, Kalaria R et al (2015) Erratum: development, appraisal, validation and implementation of a consensus protocol for the assessment of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in post-mortem brain tissue. Am J Neurodegener Dis 4(2):49PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- McCarron MO, Nicoll JA, Graham DI (1998) A quartet of Down’s syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and cerebral haemorrhage: interacting genetic risk factors. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 65(3):405–406View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Mendel T, Bertrand E, Szpak GM, Stepien T, Wierzba-Bobrowicz T (2010) Cerebral amyloid angiopathy as a cause of an extensive brain hemorrhage in adult patient with Down’s syndrome - a case report. Folia Neuropathol 48(3):206–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Morrison RA, McGrath A, Davidson G, Brown JJ, Murray GD, Lever AF (1996) Low blood pressure in Down’s syndrome, a link with Alzheimer’s disease? Hypertension 28(4):569–575View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Murdoch JC, Rodger JC, Rao SS, Fletcher CD, Dunningham MG (1977) Down’s syndrome: an atheroma-free model? Br Med J 2(6081):226–228View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Naito KS, Sekijima Y, Ikeda S (2008) Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related hemorrhage in a middle-aged patient with Down’s syndrome. Amyloid 15(4):275–277View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Neuropathology Group. Medical Research Council Cognitive F, Aging S (2001) Pathological correlates of late-onset dementia in a multicentre, community-based population in England and Wales. Neuropathology Group of the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS). Lancet 357(9251):169–175View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nizetic D, Chen CL, Hong W, Koo EH (2015) Inter-dependent mechanisms behind cognitive dysfunction, vascular biology and Alzheimer’s dementia in Down syndrome: multi-faceted roles of APP. Front Behav Neurosci 9:299View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Prasher VP, Farrer MJ, Kessling AM, Fisher EM, West RJ, Barber PC et al (1998) Molecular mapping of Alzheimer-type dementia in Down’s syndrome. Ann Neurol 43(3):380–383View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Provenzano FA, Muraskin J, Tosto G, Narkhede A, Wasserman BT, Griffith EY et al (2013) White matter hyperintensities and cerebral amyloidosis: necessary and sufficient for clinical expression of Alzheimer disease? JAMA Neurol 70(4):455–461View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- R_Core_Team (2016) A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
- Ringman JM, Monsell S, Ng DW, Zhou Y, Nguyen A, Coppola G et al (2016) Neuropathology of autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease in the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center Database. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 75(3):284–290View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Rosand J, Hylek EM, O’Donnell HC, Greenberg SM (2000) Warfarin-associated hemorrhage and cerebral amyloid angiopathy: a genetic and pathologic study. Neurology 55(7):947–951View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schapiro MB, Ball MJ, Grady CL, Haxby JV, Kaye JA, Rapoport SI (1988) Dementia in Down’s syndrome: cerebral glucose utilization, neuropsychological assessment, and neuropathology. Neurology 38(6):938–942View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schupf N, Sergievsky GH (2002) Genetic and host factors for dementia in Down’s syndrome. Br J Psychiatry 180:405–410View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schupf N, Zigman WB, Tang MX, Pang D, Mayeux R, Mehta P et al (2010) Change in plasma Abeta peptides and onset of dementia in adults with Down syndrome. Neurology 75(18):1639–1644View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sonnen JA, Larson EB, Crane PK, Haneuse S, Li G, Schellenberg GD et al (2007) Pathological correlates of dementia in a longitudinal, population-based sample of aging. Ann Neurol 62(4):406–413View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Strozyk D, Dickson DW, Lipton RB, Katz M, Derby CA, Lee S et al (2010) Contribution of vascular pathology to the clinical expression of dementia. Neurobiol Aging 31(10):1710–1720View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Strydom A, Livingston G, King M, Hassiotis A (2007) Prevalence of dementia in intellectual disability using different diagnostic criteria. Br J Psychiatry 191:150–157View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vinters HV (1987) Cerebral amyloid angiopathy. A critical review. Stroke 18(2):311–324View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Viswanathan A, Greenberg SM (2011) Cerebral amyloid angiopathy in the elderly. Ann Neurol 70(6):871–880View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Weller RO, Boche D, Nicoll JA (2009) Microvasculature changes and cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer’s disease and their potential impact on therapy. Acta Neuropathol 118(1):87–102View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wilcock DM, Schmitt FA, Head E (2016) Cerebrovascular contributions to aging and Alzheimer’s disease in Down syndrome. Biochim Biophys Acta 1862(5):909–914View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yla-Herttuala S, Luoma J, Nikkari T, Kivimaki T (1989) Down’s syndrome and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 76(2–3):269–272View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar