- Open Access
Extensive deamidation at asparagine residue 279 accounts for weak immunoreactivity of tau with RD4 antibody in Alzheimer’s disease brain
© Dan et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
- Received: 17 August 2013
- Accepted: 17 August 2013
- Published: 21 August 2013
Intracytoplasmic inclusions composed of filamentous tau proteins are defining characteristics of neurodegenerative tauopathies, but it remains unclear why different tau isoforms accumulate in different diseases and how they induce abnormal filamentous structures and pathologies. Two tau isoform-specific antibodies, RD3 and RD4, are widely used for immunohistochemical and biochemical studies of tau species in diseased brains.
Here, we show that extensive irreversible post-translational deamidation takes place at asparagine residue 279 ( N279) in the RD4 epitope of tau in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but not corticobasal degeneration (CBD) or progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and this modification abrogates the immunoreactivity to RD4. An antiserum raised against deamidated RD4 peptide specifically recognized 4R tau isoforms, regardless of deamidation, and strongly stained tau in AD brain. We also found that mutant tau with N279D substitution showed reduced ability to bind to microtubules and to promote microtubule assembly.
The biochemical and structural differences of tau in AD from that in 4R tauopathies found in this study may therefore have implications for prion-like propagation of tau.
- Alzheimer’s disease
Intracellular inclusions composed of filamentous tau proteins are defining characteristics of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Pick’s disease, corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that stabilizes microtubules and promotes their assembly. In adult human brain, 6 tau isoforms are expressed as a result of mRNA splicing. They are divided into two groups, 3-repeat (3R) and 4-repeat (4R) tau isoforms, according to whether or not exon 10 is expressed. Tau pathologies show clear morphological differences among different diseases or disease types, and different tau isoforms are accumulated in the diseased brains, namely, 6 tau isoforms in AD, 3R tau isoforms in Pick’s disease, and 4R tau isoforms in PSP and CBD [1, 2]. In addition, tau in PSP and tau in CBD are biochemically distinguished by the banding pattern of the C-terminal fragments . However, it remains unclear why different tau isoforms accumulate in different diseases and how they lead to the formation of abnormal filamentous structures and pathologies.
Isoform-specific tau antibodies are useful tools for immunohistochemical and biochemical studies of tau species in diseased brains. In particular, RD3 and RD4 , which are specific antibodies to 3R and 4R tau isoforms, respectively, have been widely used to investigate tau pathologies [5–7]. One of the present authors (M.H.) had found that the asparagine residue at position 279 (N279), located in the RD4 epitope, was detected mostly as aspartic acid owing to deamidation of asparagine when PHF-tau in AD brains was subjected to protein sequencing and LC/MS/MS analysis after digestion with lysyl endopeptidase . Here, we show that the irreversible post-translational deamidation takes place at N279 (N279D) in the RD4 epitope of tau in AD, but not CBD or PSP, and this modification abrogates the immunoreactivity to RD4. We raised an antiserum against RD4 peptide with N279D in rabbit, and showed that it specifically recognizes 4R tau isoforms regardless of deamidation and strongly stained tau in AD brain. We further show that mutant tau with N279D substitution has a reduced ability to bind to microtubules and to promote their assembly. These results have important implications for immunohistochemical and other studies aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms of tau accumulation in AD and other tauopathies.
Low immunoreactivities of tau in AD and tau deamidated at N279 to RD4
RD4 cannot recognize 4R tau with deamidation at N279
Antiserum against peptide with deamidation of N279 strongly stained tau smears in AD
Deamidation of N279 reduces the ability of tau to bind microtubules
Our present results indicate that the N279 on the RD4 epitope is extensively deamidated in pathological tau from AD brain. Because the widely used RD4 antibody is unreactive to the deamidated epitope, the level of 4R tau isoforms in AD brain will have been markedly underestimated in previous immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses using RD4 antibody. Deamidation is an irreversible, non-enzymatic reaction, in which the amide-containing side chain is removed from asparagine or glutamine. It is known to be a marker for aging in proteins with long life-spans, and, for example, many deamidation sites have been identified in crystallins , the major proteins of the eye lens. In biochemical deamidation, the side chain of an asparagine residue attacks the amide group, forming a succinimide intermediate, which, upon hydrolysis, affords either aspartate or isoaspartate . Isoaspartate formation from asparagine residues of tau has been reported in AD brains [9, 13], but deamidation has been less well investigated. Nevertheless, deamidation is important because it alters the charge of the amino acid residue, and this can markedly affect protein structure and interaction with other proteins. Therefore, deamidation of N279 may have an effect on tau similar to that of missense mutations in FTDP-tau, many of which affect the ability of tau to promote microtubule assembly or to self-aggregate into amyloid fibrils. Indeed, substitution of N279 to Asp greatly reduced the ability of tau to promote microtubule assembly (Figure 5). However, we did not observe any accelerating effect on tau fibril formation (data not shown). Further studies are needed, but it is possible that the deamidation may be a consequence of aging of tau in paired helical filaments (PHF).
Other potential post-translational modifications in the RD4 epitope include acetylation and methylation on K280 [14–16]. Using antibodies specific for tau acetylated at lysine 280, significant acetylated-tau pathology has been found with a distribution pattern similar to that of hyperphosphorylated tau . However, in our protein chemical analyses (including LC/MS/MS) of AD tau, such modification has not been clearly detected. It is possible that the modification is hardly detectable in LC/MS/MS. But it is also possible that antibodies to acetylated K280 peptide may recognize a tau epitope exposed as a result of conformational change. It remains to be investigated whether the acetylation or methylation alters immunoreactivity to RD4 or whether deamidation of N279 influences immunoreactivity to acetylated K280.
The results of this study have implications for the molecular mechanisms of tau assembly. The RD4 immunoreactivity of AD tau (composed of 3R and 4R tau) is different from that of CBD tau and PSP tau (composed of 4R tau), suggesting that the tau filament core structures may be different. Indeed, abnormal tau filaments characteristic of each disease have been described . It seems reasonable to speculate that the RD4 epitope is integrated in the filament cores in CBD and PSP, making it resistant to deamidation and degradation. However, further analyses will be needed to understand the structures of tau in CBD, PSP and other tauopathies.
Prion-like spreading of intracellular pathological proteins or template (seed)-dependent conversion of normal protein to abnormal forms are candidate molecular mechanisms for involvement in the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative diseases including AD [18–21]. The biochemical and structural differences of tau in AD from that in 4R tauopathies found in this study may therefore have implications for prion-like propagation of tau. Heterodimeric tau composed of both 3R tau and 4R tau with an amyloid-like conformation may act as a template for converting normal 3R and 4R tau to the abnormal structures seen in neurons, forming unique PHF structures composed of both 3R and 4R tau. Therefore, site-specific antibodies are important tools for immunohistochemical and biochemical studies of the role of tau in neurodegenerative diseases.
We conclude that extensive irreversible post-translational deamidation takes place at asparagine residue 279 ( N279) in the RD4 epitope of tau in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but not corticobasal degeneration (CBD) or progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and this modification abrogates the immunoreactivity to RD4. An antiserum raised against deamidated RD4 peptide specifically recognized 4R tau isoforms, regardless of deamidation, and strongly stained tau in AD brain.
Human brain tissues
Human brain tissues were obtained from The Manchester Brain Bank, University of Manchester (Manchester, UK), Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (Tokyo, Japan) and NCNP Hospital (Tokyo, Japan). This study was approved by the local research ethics committees of Tokyo Institute of Psychiatry and Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science. The subjects included three patients diagnosed with AD, three with PSP and three with CBD, neuropathologically confirmed by immunohistochemistry with antibodies to tau, Aβ, α-synuclein and TDP-43.
Preparation of sarkosyl-insoluble fractions
Brain samples (0.5 g) from patients with AD, PSP and CBD were each homogenized in 10 ml of homogenization buffer (HB: 10 mM Tris–HCl, pH 7.5 containing 0.8 M NaCl, 1 mM EGTA, 1 mM dithiothreitol). Sarkosyl was added to the lysates (final concentration: 2%), which were then incubated for 30 min at 37°C and centrifuged at 20,000 g for 10 min at 25°C. The supernatant was divided into eight tubes (each 1.3 mL) and centrifuged at 100,000 g for 20 min at 25°C. The pellets were further washed with sterile saline (0.5 mL/tube) and centrifuged at 100,000 g for 20 min. The resulting pellets were used as Sarkosyl-insoluble fraction (ppt).
LC/MS/MS analysis of sarkosyl-insoluble tau
Sarkosyl-insoluble tau from AD brains was subjected to SDS–PAGE using 4–20% polyacrylamide gel (PAGE mini, Daiichi, Tokyo). After staining with Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 (CBB), the bands corresponding to the phosphorylated tau (64 and 68 kDa) were cut out. In-gel digestion of proteins with 1 μg/ml trypsin was carried out as described previously and the resulting peptides were analyzed by an ion-trap spectrometry (Velos Pro; Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. Waltham, MA). The MS/MS data files were searched and analyzed using the Mascot Server (Matrix Science Inc., Boston, MA).
Recombinant tau proteins
Expression constructs for six human tau isoforms in plasmid pRK172 were kindly provided by Dr. Goedert. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to change N279 to Asp (numbering refers to the 441-amino-acid isoform of human brain tau) in the four-repeat 412-amino-acid isoform (expressed from cDNA clone htau46). Wild-type and mutated tau proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and purified as described previously. For in vitro phosphorylation, purified tau (10 μg/ml) was incubated with PKA (10,000 U/ml; New England Biolabs, Beverly, MA) in 30 mM Tris–HCl buffer (pH 7.5) containing 0.1 mM EGTA, 10 mM MgSO4, 0.8 mM PMSF and 2 mM ATP, at 30°C for 1 hr.
RD3 (directed to residues 209~224: Millipore), RD4 (residues 275~291: Millipore), T46 (residues 404~441: Invitrogen) and pS396 (phospho-Ser396: Calbiochem) were purchased. Antiserum anti-4R was raised against a synthetic peptide VQIIDKKLDLSNVQSKC which corresponds to residues 275~291 of human tau (441 residues), with substitution of N279 to Asp (Sigma Aldrich Japan). The peptide was conjugated to m-maleimidobenzoyl- N-hydrosuccinimide ester-activated keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). The KLH-peptide complex (1 mg of each immunogen) emulsified in Freund’s complete adjuvant was injected subcutaneously into a New Zealand White rabbit, followed by 5 weekly subcutaneous injections of 150 μg KLH-peptide complex emulsified in Freund’s incomplete adjuvant, starting 3 weeks after the first immunization.
Each synthetic peptide consisting of residues 275~291 (VQIINKKLDLSNVQSKC) with the fifth position being replaced by L-Asp, L-isoAsp, or D-Asp was synthesized by the solid-phase method (Sigma Aldrich Japan) These peptides, L-Asn (wild-type), L-Asp, L-isoAsp, D-Asp (0.625 ~ 10 μg/ml in 50 mM Tris–HCl, pH 8.8) were coated onto microtitre plates (SUMILON) at 4°C for 16 h. The plates were blocked with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in PBS, incubated with the first antibodies (RD4, 1:1000; anti-4R, 1:3000) diluted in 10% FBS/PBS at room temperature for 1.5 h, followed by incubation with HRP-goat anti-rabbit IgG (Bio-Rad) at 1:1000 dilution, and reacted with the substrate, 0.4 mg/ml o-phenylendiamine, in citrate buffer (24 mM citric acid, 51 mM Na2HPO4), The absorbance at 490 nm was measured using Plate Chameleon (HIDEX) as described .
Microtubule assembly and tau binding
Purified recombinant wild-type and mutant tau (htau46) proteins (0.1 mg/ml, 2.3 μM) were incubated with bovine brain tubulin (1 mg/ml, 20 μM, cytoskeleton) in assembly buffer at 37°C, as described . The assembly of tubulin was monitored in terms of the change in turbidity at 350 nm. The binding assay was performed as described . Briefly, purified tubulin was incubated at 37°C in the presence of 1 mM GTP and 20 μM taxol. Tau protein was added at various concentrations and each mixture was incubated for 10 min. The suspensions were centrifuged for 100,000 g at 37°C. The resulting pellets were resuspended in 50 mM PIPES pH 6.9, 1 mM EGTA, 0.2 mM MgCl2, 5 mM DTT, 0.5 M NaCl. The pellets and supernatants (containing bound and free tau, respectively) were subjected to SDS-PAGE and stained with Coomassie brilliant blue R250. The gels were scanned at 400 dpi on a gel scanner and evaluated using the software provided.
Gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting
Samples were run on gradient 4-20% or 10% polyacrylamide gels and electrophoretically transferred to PVDF membranes. Residual protein-binding sites were blocked by incubation with 3% gelatin (Wako) for 10 min at 37°C, followed by overnight incubation at room temperature with the primary antibody. The membrane was then incubated for 1 hr at room temperature with anti-rabbit IgG (BA-1000, Vector Lab) or anti-mouse IgG (BA-2000, Vector lab), then incubated for 30 min with avidin-horseradish peroxidase (Vector Lab), and the reaction product was visualized by using 0.1% 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and 0.2 mg/ml NiCl2 as the chromogen.
Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of AD brains were used for immunohistochemistry. The sections were pretreated by autoclaving for 10 min in 10 mM sodium citrate buffer at 120°C and treated with 100% formic acid for 10 min. Sections were washed with 10 mM phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) three times for 10 min each. Sections were blocked with 10% normal serum and incubated overnight at room temperature with one of the primary antibodies in PBS. After washing, sections were incubated with biotinylated anti-mouse or rabbit secondary antibody for 2 h, followed by biotinylated horseradish peroxidase complex (ABC, Vector) for 1 hr. The label was visualized with EnVision™(Dako). Sections were counterstained with hematoxylin.
We acknowledge the support of Alzheimer’s Research UK and Alzheimer’s Society through their funding of the Manchester Brain Bank under the Brains for Dementia Research (BDR) initiative. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) (JSPS KAKENHI 23228004 to M.H.), a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (JSPS KAKENHI 23240050 to M.H.), MHLW Grant (Number 12946221 to M.H.) and a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Area ‘Brain Environment’ (MEXT KAKENHI 24111556 to T.N).
- Umeda Y, Taniguchi S, Arima K, Piao YS, Takahashi H, Iwatsubo T, Mann D, Hasegawa M: Alterations in human tau transcripts correlate with those of neurofilament in sporadic tauopathies. Neurosci Lett 2004, 359: 151–154. 10.1016/j.neulet.2004.01.060View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goedert M, Spillantini MG: Pathogenesis of the tauopathies. J Mol Neurosci 2011, 45: 425–431. 10.1007/s12031-011-9593-4View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Arai T, Ikeda K, Akiyama H, Nonaka T, Hasegawa M, Ishiguro K, Iritani S, Tsuchiya K, Iseki E, Yagishita S, Oda T, Mochizuki A: Identification of amino-terminally cleaved tau fragments that distinguish progressive supranuclear palsy from corticobasal degeneration. Ann Neurol 2004, 55: 72–79. 10.1002/ana.10793View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- de Silva R, Lashley T, Gibb G, Hanger D, Hope A, Reid A, Bandopadhyay R, Utton M, Strand C, Jowett T, Khan N, Anderton B, Wood N, Holton J, Revesz T, Lees A: Pathological inclusion bodies in tauopathies contain distinct complements of tau with three or four microtubule-binding repeat domains as demonstrated by new specific monoclonal antibodies. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2003, 29: 288–302. 10.1046/j.1365-2990.2003.00463.xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- de Silva R, Lashley T, Strand C, Shiarli AM, Shi J, Tian J, Bailey KL, Davies P, Bigio EH, Arima K, Iseki E, Murayama S, Kretzschmar H, Neumann M, Lippa C, Halliday G, MacKenzie J, Ravid R, Dickson D, Wszolek Z, Iwatsubo T, Pickering-Brown SM, Holton J, Lees A, Revesz T, Mann DM: An immunohistochemical study of cases of sporadic and inherited frontotemporal lobar degeneration using 3R- and 4R-specific tau monoclonal antibodies. Acta Neuropathol 2006, 111: 329–340. 10.1007/s00401-006-0048-xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Togo T, Akiyama H, Iseki E, Uchikado H, Kondo H, Ikeda K, Tsuchiya K, de Silva R, Lees A, Kosaka K: Immunohistochemical study of tau accumulation in early stages of Alzheimer-type neurofibrillary lesions. Acta Neuropathol 2004, 107: 504–508. 10.1007/s00401-004-0842-2View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Piao YS, Tan CF, Iwanaga K, Kakita A, Takano H, Nishizawa M, Lashley T, Revesz T, Lees A, de Silva R, Tsujihata M, Takahashi H: Sporadic four-repeat tauopathy with frontotemporal degeneration, parkinsonism and motor neuron disease. Acta Neuropathol 2005, 110: 600–609. 10.1007/s00401-005-1086-5View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hasegawa M, Morishima-Kawashima M, Takio K, Suzuki M, Titani K, Ihara Y: Protein sequence and mass spectrometric analyses of tau in the Alzheimer’s disease brain. J Biol Chem 1992, 267: 17047–17054.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Watanabe A, Takio K, Ihara Y: Deamidation and isoaspartate formation in smeared tau in paired helical filaments. Unusual properties of the microtubule-binding domain of tau. J Biol Chem 1999, 274: 7368–7378. 10.1074/jbc.274.11.7368View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hara M, Hirokawa K, Kamei S, Uchihara T: Isoform transition from four-repeat to three-repeat tau underlies dendrosomatic and regional progression of neurofibrillary pathology. Acta Neuropathol 2013, 125: 565–579. 10.1007/s00401-013-1097-6View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van Kleef FS, De Jong WW, Hoenders HJ: Stepwise degradations and deamidation of the eye lens protein alpha-crystallin in ageing. Nature 1975, 258: 264–266. 10.1038/258264a0View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Geiger T, Clarke S: Deamidation, isomerization, and racemization at asparaginyl and aspartyl residues in peptides. Succinimide-linked reactions that contribute to protein degradation. J Biol Chem 1987, 262: 785–794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miyasaka T, Watanabe A, Saito Y, Murayama S, Mann DM, Yamazaki M, Ravid R, Morishima-Kawashima M, Nagashima K, Ihara Y: Visualization of newly deposited tau in neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2005, 64: 665–674. 10.1097/01.jnen.0000173890.79058.1dView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cohen TJ, Guo JL, Hurtado DE, Kwong LK, Mills IP, Trojanowski JQ, Lee VM: The acetylation of tau inhibits its function and promotes pathological tau aggregation. Nat Commun 2011, 2: 252.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Irwin DJ, Cohen TJ, Grossman M, Arnold SE, Xie SX, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ: Acetylated tau, a novel pathological signature in Alzheimer’s disease and other tauopathies. Brain 2012, 135: 807–818. 10.1093/brain/aws013PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Min SW, Cho SH, Zhou Y, Schroeder S, Haroutunian V, Seeley WW, Huang EJ, Shen Y, Masliah E, Mukherjee C, Meyers D, Cole PA, Ott M, Gan L: Acetylation of tau inhibits its degradation and contributes to tauopathy. Neuron 2010, 67: 953–966. 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.08.044PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Arima K: Ultrastructural characteristics of tau filaments in tauopathies: immuno-electron microscopic demonstration of tau filaments in tauopathies. Neuropathology 2006, 26: 475–483. 10.1111/j.1440-1789.2006.00669.xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Clavaguera F, Akatsu H, Fraser G, Crowther RA, Frank S, Hench J, Probst A, Winkler DT, Reichwald J, Staufenbiel M, Ghetti B, Goedert M, Tolnay M: Brain homogenates from human tauopathies induce tau inclusions in mouse brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013, 110: 9535–9540. 10.1073/pnas.1301175110PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Masuda-Suzukake M, Nonaka T, Hosokawa M, Oikawa T, Arai T, Akiyama H, Mann DM, Hasegawa M: Prion-like spreading of pathological alpha-synuclein in brain. Brain 2013, 136: 1128–1138. 10.1093/brain/awt037PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hasegawa M, Nonaka T, Tsuji H, Tamaoka A, Yamashita M, Kametani F, Yoshida M, Arai T, Akiyama H: Molecular dissection of TDP-43 proteinopathies. J Mol Neurosci 2011, 45: 480–485. 10.1007/s12031-011-9571-xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nonaka T, Masuda-Suzukake M, Arai T, Hasegawa Y, Akatsu H, Obi T, Yoshida M, Murayama S, Mann DM, Akiyama H, Hasegawa M: Prion-like Properties of Pathological TDP-43 Aggregates from Diseased Brains. Cell Rep 2013, 4: 124–134. 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.06.007View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hasegawa M, Smith MJ, Goedert M: Tau proteins with FTDP-17 mutations have a reduced ability to promote microtubule assembly. FEBS Lett 1998, 437: 207–210. 10.1016/S0014-5793(98)01217-4View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Masuda M, Hasegawa M, Nonaka T, Oikawa T, Yonetani M, Yamaguchi Y, Kato K, Hisanaga S, Goedert M: Inhibition of alpha-synuclein fibril assembly by small molecules: analysis using epitope-specific antibodies. FEBS Lett 2009, 583: 787–791. 10.1016/j.febslet.2009.01.037View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gustke N, Steiner B, Mandelkow EM, Biernat J, Meyer HE, Goedert M, Mandelkow E: The Alzheimer-like phosphorylation of tau protein reduces microtubule binding and involves Ser-Pro and Thr-Pro motifs. FEBS Lett 1992, 307: 199–205. 10.1016/0014-5793(92)80767-BView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.