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Table 3 Total number of neurons per region and neuronal numerical density in 15 structures and 16 cytoarchitectonic subdivisions in examined brain hemisphere of individuals with autism and control subjects*

From: Stereological study of the neuronal number and volume of 38 brain subdivisions of subjects diagnosed with autism reveals significant alterations restricted to the striatum, amygdala and cerebellum

Structure/cytoarchitectonic subdivision Total number of neurons per region Neuronal numerical density (N/mm3)
Autism Control p< Autism Control p<
Putamen 61,675,039 65,111,021 ns 23,749 27,531 0.041
Caudate nucleus 54,693,459 49,292,390 ns 25,958 28,542 ns
Thalamus 47,403,083 49,291,830 ns 15,645 16,436 ns
Cornu Ammonis (CA) 14,812,043 15,047,614 ns 24,769 24,955 ns
- CA1 11,575,341 11,533,806 ns 26,368 26,699 ns
- CA2 1,051,901 1,152,120 ns 32,872 32,003 ns
- CA3 1,054,780 1,124,862 ns 23,972 24,997 ns
- CA4 1,130,021 1,236,826 ns 13,453 13,897 ns
Claustrum 12,351,088 12,917,584 ns 28,590 29,225 ns
- Insular claustrum 6,576,940 6,729,652 ns 27,751 27,924 ns
- Prepiriform claustrum 5,774,148 6,187,932 ns 29,764 30,786 ns
Entorhinal cortex (EC) 11,878,538 12,915,740 ns 23,997 27,077 ns
- EC Islands 813,252 1,023,270 ns (0.013) 21,401 24,364 ns
- EC III 5,553,881 6,071,044 ns 21,866 24,881 0.021
- EC V 1,871,129 2,008,421 ns 31,185 32,394 ns
- EC VI 3,640,276 3,813,005 ns 25,456 29,558 ns
Amygdala 9,819,741 11,138,599 ns 24,735 27,503 ns
- Basal nucleus 2,821,429 3,154,350 ns 24,968 27,193 ns
- Lateral nucleus 4,609,751 5,544,098 ns 24,390 27,446 0.017
- Accesory basal nucleus 2,046,439 2,109,385 ns 24,957 27,755 ns
- Central nucleus 342,122 330,766 ns 26,317 30,070 ns
Nucleus accumbens 8,078,093 7,285,654 ns 33,107 40,031 0.018
Lateral geniculate body 1,493,426 1,392,966 ns 18,668 18,090 ns
Globus pallidus 1,277,936 1,312,262 ns 2,092 2,339 ns
- External globus pallidus 899,307 904,365 ns 2,183 2,485 ns
- Internal globus pallidus 378,629 407,897 ns 1,903 2,071 ns
Dentate nucleus 970,440 918,809 ns 3,977 3,960 ns
Magnocellular basal complex 768,415 790,893 ns 9,148 9,764 ns
Inferior olive 793,002 716,895 ns 12,790 12,151 ns
Substantia nigra 744,247 707,228 ns 7,594 8,037 ns
Cerebellum (Purkinje cells) 12,060,920 16,003,095 0.0001 488 645 0.0024
  1. *Controlled for log age, brain weight, post-mortem interval, days of fixation, and percentage of brain weight loss during dehydration entered as covariates.
  2. The total number of neuronal deficit (by 20%; p < 0.013) in stellate neuron islands in the entorhinal cortex was not significant only when log age, brain weight, post-mortem interval, and days of fixation were entered as covariates.