Skip to main content

Table 2 Mean volume (±SE) of 14 brain structures and 24 cytoarchitectonic subdivisions in one brain hemisphere of autistic and control subjects*

From: Stereological study of the neuronal number and volume of 38 brain subdivisions of subjects diagnosed with autism reveals significant alterations restricted to the striatum, amygdala and cerebellum

Brain structure or cytoarchitectonic subdivision Volume (mm3) (Absolute volume calculated using mounted section thickness) Volume (mm3) corrected for shrinkage
Autism Control p< Autism Control
Thalamus 3,030 × 116 2,999 × 92 ns 5,717 5,453
Putamen 2,597 × 165 2,365 × 111 ns 4,900 4,300
Caudate nucleus 2,107 × 114 1,727 × 114 0.036 3,975 3,140
Cornu Ammonis (CA) 598 × 33 602 × 30 ns 1,128 1,096
- CA1 439 × 22 432 × 23 ns 828 785
- CA2 32 × 3 36 × 2 ns 60 65
- CA3 44 × 3 45 × 4 ns 83 82
- CA4 84 × 7 89 × 6 ns 158 162
Entorhinal cortex (EC) I-VI 589 × 39 557 × 36 ns 1,111 1,012
- EC I 71 × 4 63 × 4 ns 134 115
- EC II (Islands) 38 × 3 42 × 4 ns 72 76
- EC III 254 × 17 244 × 16 ns 479 444
- EC IV 23 × 3 17 × 5 ns 43 31
- EC V 60 × 4 62 × 5 ns 113 113
- EC VI 143 × 10 129 × 9 ns 270 234
Globus pallidus 611 × 36 561 × 25 ns 1,153 1,020
- External globus pallidus 412 × 28 364 × 29 ns 777 662
- Internal globus pallidus 199 × 10 197 × 10 ns 375 358
Claustrum 432 × 32 442 × 27 ns 815 804
- Insular claustrum 237 × 19 241 × 16 ns 447 438
- Prepiriform claustrum 194 × 14 201 × 13 ns 366 365
Amygdala 397 × 43 405 × 22 ns 749 736
- Basal nucleus 113 × 15 116 × 8 ns 213 211
- Lateral nucleus 189 × 20 202 × 13 ns 356 367
- Accessory basal nucleus 82 × 10 76 × 6 ns 155 138
- Central nucleus 13 × 1 11 × 1 ns 25 20
Nucleus accumbens 244 × 23 182 × 13 0.050 460 331
Substantia nigra 98 × 6 88 × 4 ns 185 160
Magnocellular basal complex 84 × 8 81 × 5 ns 158 147
Lateral geniculate body 80 × 5 77 × 4 ns 151 140
Inferior olive 62 × 2 59 × 4 ns 117 107
Cerebellum 31,779 × 1,304 31,133 × 1,397 ns 59,959 56,605
- Cerebellar cortex (calculated) 24,715 24,811 ns 46,632 45,111
- Molecular layer 12,623 × 443 12,885 × 758 ns 23,816 23,427
- Granule cell layer 12,092 × 611 11,926 × 474 ns 22,815 21,684
- Cerebellar white matter 6,700 × 380 6,005 × 323 ns 12,641 10,918
- Cerebellar nuclei 364 × 34 317 × 21 ns 686 576
- Dentate nucleus 244 × 14 232 × 13 ns 511 422
  1. *Statistical significance controlled for brain weight and brain weight decrease during dehydration (%) entered as covariate. ns = not significant.
  2. Volume (mm3) corrected for shrinkage: autism, 47%; control, 45%.