Determination of DGC-specific transcriptomic signatures and their validation in single cell RNA-sequencing data. a Dot plot showing the ranking metric score (signal-to-noise ratio) of DGCs versus GSCs. Red and blue dots indicate the top 50 significantly altered genes in DGCs and GDCs. On the x axis, genes farther to the left have higher expression in DGCs, whereas genes farther to the right have higher expression in GSCs. NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus GSE54791. b Volcano plot comparing gene expression between DGCs and GSCs. Each dot represents one gene. Red and blue dots indicate the top 50 significantly altered genes in DGCs and GDCs. Genes were considered to be significantly different when the adjusted P value was < 0.05 and the difference of the mean fold change was > 2. NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus GSE54791. c Heat map of the top 50 genes exclusively upregulated in DGCs and GSCs. NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus GSE54791. d Heat map shows expression of DGC and GSC signature ssGSEA scores and genes of each signature (rows) in individual GBM cells (columns) of single cell RNA-sequencing data from four GBM tumors (BT S1, BT S2, BT S4, and BT S6). Cells were grouped by the tumor and ordered by the DGC signature ssGSEA score. NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus GSE84465. e Correlation analysis between DGC and GSC signature ssGSEA scores in single cell RNA-sequencing data from four GBM tumors (BT S1, BT S2, BT S4, and BT S6). Pearson’s correlation test. NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus GSE84465. f Expression of DGC signature genes (left) and GSC signature genes (right) in a cluster of two-dimensional representation of cellular states. Each quadrant corresponds to one cellular state, the exact positions of malignant cells (dots) reflect their relative scores for the meta-modules, and their colors reflect gene expression levels. AC, astrocyte, MES, mesenchymal, OPC, oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell, NPC, neural-progenitor-cell, TPM, transcripts per million.