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Table 1 Overview of patient demographics and clinical characteristics

From: Characterizing temporal genomic heterogeneity in pediatric low-grade gliomas

  Number of patients (%)
Gender
 Female 27 (60%)
 Male 18 (40%)
Median age (years) at diagnosis (range) 5.8 (0.4–18.3)
Histologic diagnosis
 Pilocytic Astrocytoma 26(58%)
 Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma 2 (4%)
 Diffuse Astrocytoma 7 (16%)
 Ganglioglioma 5 (11%)
 Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma (DIG) 1 (2%)
 Pleomorphic Xanthroastrocytoma (PXA) 1 (2%)
 Angiocentric glioma 1 (2%)
 Low grade glial or glioneuronal neoplasm, not otherwise specified (NOS) 2 (4%)
Extent of first surgical resection (at diagnosis)
 Biopsy 10 (23%)
 Subtotal resection 24 (50%)
 Gross total resection 11 (27%)
Median time (months) to first progressiona (Range) 13 (1.5–178)
Median time (months) to second surgery (Range) 19 (1.5–178)
Extent of second surgical resection
 Biopsy 2 (4%)
 Subtotal resection 17 (38%)
 Gross total resection 22 (49%)
 Unknown 4 (9%)
Received systemic therapy prior to second surgery 17 (38%)
 Received at least two systemic therapy regimens prior to second surgery 8 (17%)
 Systemic therapy received (% of patients who received systemic therapy)
  Carboplatin with or without Vincristine 12 (71%)
  Vinblastine 6 (35%)
  Bevacizumab with or without Irinotecan 3 (18%)
  Temozolomide 2 (12%)
  Thioguanine, Procarbazine, Lomustine, and Vincristine 2 (12%)
  Carboplatin or Cisplatin, Cyclophosphamide, and Etoposide 2 (12%)
  Trametinib 1 (6%)
  Everolimus 1 (6%)
  Lenalinomide 1 (6%)
  Vorinostat 1 (6%)
  Rapamycin 1 (6%)
Received irradiation prior to second surgery 4 (9%)
Received no systemic therapy or irradiation prior to second surgery 25 (56%)
Underwent third surgery 4 (9%)
Median time (months) from second surgery to third surgery (range) 38.5 (1–118)
Extent of third surgical resection
 Biopsy 1 (25%)
 Subtotal resection 3 (75%)
Received systemic therapy between second and third surgeries 2 (50%)
Systemic therapy received
  Temozolomide, then Vinblastine 1 (20%)
  Avastin and Irinotecan 1 (20%)
Received irradiation between second and third surgery 0 (0%)
Received no systemic therapy or irradiation between second and third surgeries 2 (50%)
Underwent fourth surgical resection 2 (4%)
Median time (months) from third surgery to fourth surgery (Range) 45.5 (8–83)
Extent of fourth surgical resection
 Subtotal resection 1 (50%)
 Autopsy 1 (50%)
Received systemic therapy between third and fourth surgeries 2 (100%)
 Systemic therapy received  
  Temozolomide, then Trametinib 1 (50%)
  Lenalidomide, then Selumetinib, then Everolimus 1 (50%)
Received irradiation between third and fourth surgery 1 (50%)
Alive at time of last follow-up 42 (93%)
Median time (months) to last follow-up (Range) 87 (13–395)
  1. aTime to first progression was defined as the time from diagnosis to a new medical or surgical intervention in response to clinical and/or radiographic concern for progression. This excludes four patients in the cohort who did not have obvious clinical or radiographic progression, but for whom a second surgery was undertaken to achieve maximal safe resection of residual tumor