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Table 2 Preclinical studies using active immunotherapy in vivo

From: Intersection of pathological tau and microglia at the synapse

Publication Peptide/adjuvant Animal model/ immunization start Immunization schedule Results
Rosenmann (2006) [252] Tau1-441 + CFA + PT C57BL/6 (+/- MOG) Vaccine, PT 2D later, Tau-CFA 1W later Tau pathology in neurons and glia, severe neuroinflammation, axonal degeneration, tail and hind leg paralysis, behavioral impairments
Boimel (2010) [35] Tau195-213[P202/205], Tau207-220[P212/214], Tau224-238[P231] peptide mix + MBT + PT Tau-K257T/P301S (+/- MOG) 4M Vaccine, PT 2D later, peptides 1W later ↓ NFTs, microgliosis, NC astrogliosis, changes in lysosomal proteases
Boutajangout (2010) [42] Tau379–408[pS396/S404] + aluminium phosphate hTau (6 isoforms) crossed with PS1 M146L 3-4M See Boutajangout (2010) ↓ P-tau, NC micro- and astrogliosis, improved cognition
Bi (2011) [30] Tau395–406[pS396/S404] + CFA + KLH or IFA pR5 (4R2N/P301L) 4M, 8M or 18M 0W, 2W and 4W ↓ P-tau, ↓ NFTs, ↑astrogliosis in aged group
Rozenstein-Tsalkovich (2013) [254] See Boimel (2010) Tau-K257T/P301S 6M or 12M Vaccine, booster 2W later, peptide mix every month (7x in 12M mice, 4x in aged mice) Severe neuroinflammation, neurological deficits
Theunis (2013) [296] Tau393-408[pS396/pS404] liposomes Tau.P301L (2N4R/P301L) 6M 0W, 2W, 4W. Then once after 3M or 2-monthly intervals ↓ P-tau, ↓insoluble tau, NC micro- and astrogliosis, improved clinical parameters
Ando (2014) [9] PHF + aluminium phosphate THY-Tau22 (4R1N/G272V & P301S) 12M 0W, 2W, 6W, 10W ↓NFTs, ↓insoluble tau, NC micro- and astrogliosis
Selenica (2014) [268] 2N4R or 2N4R/P301L + Quil-A Tg4510 (4R0N/P301L) 5M 0W, 2W, 4W, then 10W rest and followed by 3x 3-weekly boosters ↓ P-tau, ↓micro- and astrogliosis
Rajamohamedsait (2017) [246] See Boutajangout (2010) 3xTg (4R02/P301L, PS1 M146V, APPSWE) 3M See Boutajangout (2010) ↓ P-tau, ↓ MC1, ↓ insoluble tau, ↓microgliosis, NC astrogliosis, ↓plaque burden
Benhamron (2018) [24] See Boimel (2010) APPSwe/PSEN1dE9-tg 14M See (Boimel, 2010) ↓P-tau, ↓ Aβ burden, ↑microgliosis, NC astrogliosis, improved cognition
Ji (2018) [152] Tau294-305 VLP PS19 (4R1N/P301S) 3M 4x at 2-weekly or 3-weekly intervals ↓ P-tau, ↓ insoluble tau, ↓microgliosis, ↓astrogliosis, ↓synapse loss, improved cognition