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Table 1 Characteristics of subjects

From: Brainstem tau pathology in Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by increase of three repeat tau and independent of amyloid β

Case Age at death Sex Braak’s cortical NFT stages Lewy pathology Brainstem
NFT
Comparison of 3R tau % with 4R tau% Formalin-fixed brain weight (g) CERAD neuritic plaque score Brainstem
Aβ deposition
Midbrain Pons Midbrain Pons
Superior colliculus Periaqueductal gray Linear raphe nucleus Substantia nigra Locus coeruleus Dorsal raphe nucleus Median raphe nucleus Neuropil thread NFT Total Superior colliculus Periaqueductal gray Linear raphe nucleus Substantia nigra Total Locus coeruleus Dorsal raphe nucleus Median raphe nucleus Reticular formation Pontine nucleus
Ventral/Dorsal Medial/Lateral Midbrain Pons Midbrain Pons Ventral / Dorsal Medial/ Lateral
1 74 M I/II + (B) + + / + + +/+ + + + < < < < 1310 0
2 81 M I/II + + / + + +/+ + + + < < < > 1455 A
3 71 F I/II + ++/++ + +/++ +++ + ++ > > < > 1240 0
4 77 M I/II + + / + + +/+ + + + < < > > 1350 0
5 78 M I/II + + / + + +/+ ++ + + < > < > 1410 A
6 87 M I/II + + / + + +/+ ++ + ++ < < < < 1375 B
7 68 M I/II + + / + + +/+ + + + < < < < 1390 0
8 63 M I/II + + / + + +/+ + + + < > > > 1515 0
9 86 F III/IV + (B) + ++ / + + +/++ +++ + ++ < > > > 1190 B
10 93 M III/IV + ++ / + +++ ++/++ ++ + ++ < > > > 1430 B ++ ++ - / + ++ ++
11 100 F III/IV + ++ / + ++ +/++ +++ + ++ > > > > 1150 A + +
12 83 F III/IV +++ ++ / + ++ +/+ ++ + ++ > > > > 1100 B ++ ++ + / ++ +/− + +
13 86 M III/IV + (T) + ++ / + + +/+ + ++ +++ > < < < 1270 B + + + +
14 92 F III/IV + + / + + +/+ +++ ++ ++ > > > > 1130 B + +
15 95 F III/IV + + / + + +/++ + + +++ < > > > 1260 C ++ ++ - / + +/−
16 80 M III/IV + + / + + +/+ +++ + ++ > < < < 1400 B + + +/−
17 82 M V/VI +++ +++ / + ++ ++/++ ++ ++ +++ > > > > 1185 C +++ +++ + / ++ + +/− +++ +++ + ++ + +
18 93 M V/VI + +++ / + +++ ++/+ +++ +++ +++ > > > > 1080 C + + - / + +/+ +++ +++ + ++ +
19 94 F V/VI ++ +++ / + +++ ++/+ +++ + +++ > > > > 1350 C +++ +++ - / + ++/+ + +
20 89 F V/VI + +++ / + +++ ++/++ +++ ++ +++ > > > > 1300 B ++ ++ + / ++ + + +
21 102 F V/VI ++ +++ / + ++ +/++ +++ + ++ < < > > 1140 0
22 85 M V/VI ++ +++ / + +++ +++/++ +++ ++ +++ < < < < 1395 C +++ +++ + / ++ + ++/++ +++ +++ + ++ + +
23 88 F V/VI + (N) +++ ++ / + +++ +++/++ +++ ++ +++ > > > > 1170 C +++ +++ + /+++ ++/+ +++ +++ + + + +
  1. Concomitant Lewy pathology is described as brainstem-predominant (B), transitional (T) and neocortical (N), according to McKeith criteria [37]. The regional counts in the 1 mm2 microscopic field with maximal neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) or well-defined compact Aβ deposition density is graded as follows; − (absent): none in the field, + (sparse): 1–9/field, ++ (mild) 10–19/field, +++ (moderate): 20- /field. For the comparison of 3R tau (%) with 4R tau (%), > indicates that the proportion of 3R tau is greater than that of 4R tau, while < indicates that the proportion of 4R tau is greater than that of 3R tau, on each section