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Table 1 Primary microglia treated with ~1 nM concentration of α-synuclein fibrils (see Fig. 1), or the equivalent amount (w/v) of monomeric α-synuclein, for the indicated amount of time

From: α-Synuclein fibrils recruit peripheral immune cells in the rat brain prior to neurodegeneration

Analyte (pg mL-1) Monomer (2 hours) Fibril (2 hours) Fold (fibril/monomer) p* Monomer (4 hours) Fibril (4 hours) Fold (fibril/monomer) p*
G-CSF 0.70±0.38 3.71±0.26 5.33±0.37 0.0028 0.94±0.62 45.32±8.02 65.06±11.51 0.0053
IL-1α 18.49±1.74 30.38±2.76 1.64±0.15 0.022 16.78±1.76 85.06±10.16 5.07±0.61 0.0027
IL-2 1.06±0.14 1.45±0.26 -- ns 0.82±0.08 1.54±0.09 1.88±0.11 0.004
IL-4 0.29±0.02 0.27±0.02 -- ns 0.29±0.02 0.34±0.02 -- ns
IL-5 1.23±0.40 1.88±0.26 -- ns 1.33±0.33 2.92±0.64 -- ns
IL-6 2.78±0.86 84.07±6.48 30.20±2.33 0.0002 2.87±1.84 1000±286.4 348.57±99.77 0.0253
IL-9 13.92±5.96 3.62±3.62 -- ns 11.99±1.33 10.43±1.41 -- ns
IL-10 1.14±0.28 0.96±0.51 -- ns 0.46±0.14 3.79±1.01 8.29±2.20 0.0306
IL-15 0.83±0.83 2.08±1.76 -- ns 2.28±1.26 9.69±3.71 -- ns
IL-17 0.37±0.04 0.61±0.07 1.63±0.20 0.0456 0.32±0.03 1.77±0.20 5.59±0.64 0.0021
IP-10 (CXCL10) 2.55±0.23 24.23±1.34 9.51±0.52 <0.0001 4.20±1.42 242.5±56.68 57.68±13.48 0.0137
KC (CXCL1) 8.00±1.21 93.83±4.55 11.72±0.57 <0.0001 8.68±2.86 635.1±119.7 73.20±13.80 0.0064
MCP-1 (CCL2) 428.1±55.54 470.4±76.83 1.10±0.18 0.0126 698.3±29.25 1415±175.7 2.03±0.25 0.0079
MIP-1α 163.6±14.40 365.2±2.08 2.23±0.01 0.0002 194.9±23.25 1739±343.2 8.93±1.76 0.0109
MIP-1β 181.3±21.37 590.7±19.38 3.26±0.11 0.0001 237±41.94 4729±734.6 19.95±3.10 0.036
MIP-2 50.94±3.13 750.3±55.95 14.73±1.10 0.0002 85.52±20.56 3237±232.7 37.85±2.72 0.0002
RANTES 1.08±0.11 1.22±0.09 -- ns 0.98±0.09 8.12±2.40 8.29±2.45 0.0412
TNF 6.52±0.88 248.4±10.39 38.08±1.59 <0.0001 8.85±1.69 754.7±103.3 85.28±11.67 0.002
  1. *ns is non-significant
  2. P values were calculated with one-way ANOVA tests with Tukey’s post-hoc analysis