Abnormal behavior as a result of LAMP-2 deficiency in mice. (a) LAMP-2-deficient (LAMP-2-/y) mice show a significantly reduced paw area at the peak of stance in comparison with wild-type mice. (b) LAMP-2-/y mice swim significantly slower than wild-type controls. (c) Path length during exploration of a novel environment is significantly reduced in LAMP-2-/y mice. (d) Freezing percentage is significantly increased in LAMP-2-/y mice during the habituation phase. There was no difference in fear conditioning and contextual or cued fear memory. (e) Y-maze working memory: LAMP-2-/y mice make significantly less spontaneous alternations (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01).