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Table 2 Currently used disease-modifying agents and acute exacerbation medications with an anti-angiogenic property

From: Angiogenesis in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Chemical name Brand name References related to anti-angiogenic activity
Alemtuzumab1 Lemtrada [213]
Cyclophosphamide2 Endoxan, Cytoxan, Neosar, Procytox, Revimmune [217]
Dexamethasone Decadron [203]
Methylprednisolone Solu-Medrol [203]
Dimethyl fumarate Tecfidera [215]
Fingolimod Gilenya [210]–[212]
Glatiramer acetate Copaxone [206],[207]
Interferon β-1a Avonex, Rebif [84],[204],[205]
Interferon β-1b Betaferon, Extavia
Mitoxantrone Novantrone [216]
Natalizumab Tysabri [208],[209]
Teriflunomide Aubagio Only indirect evidence derived from anti-lymphocytes activity
  1. 1licensed for MS therapy by the European Medicine Agency (EMA) but rejected by the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA), USA; 2not licensed but used in clinical practice.