pS6 in HS ILAE type 1 with (A-J) and without (K-L) dysmorphic changes. HS ILAE type 1 with dysmorphic changes (A-J) (A) The dentate gyrus in a case with ILAE HS type 1 and additional glassy balloon-like astroglial cells on H&E which show membranous positivity for CD34 (inset). (B) pS6 235/236 labelling of hypertrophic CA4 neurones and (C) in the granule cell layer was noted in HS cases with dysplasia features; inset shows co-localisation of labelling in a proportion of cells with the two pS6 antibodies. (D) pS6 235/236 also labelled small immature cells with bipolar or multipolar processes including in the basal layer of the dentate gyrus (D) as well as through the dentate gyrus (E). Co-localisation between doublecortin (DCX) and pS6 was noted in some of these small cells in the dentate gyrus (F) as well as with nestin (G); in addition both pS6 markers co-labelled a proportion of small multipolar cells in HS. (I) With pS6 240/244 prominent labelling of horizontal cells in the stratum moleculare of the hippocampus, in addition to more distinct labelling of pyramidal cells through hippocampal subfields was noted. HS ILAE type 1: Intense labelling of CA4 neurones but the the granule cells were more variably negative (K) or positive (L) with pS6 240/244. White arrowheads in all images indicate double-labelled cells. Bar in A, C, D, E, F, G, H and J equivalent to approximately 35 microns and in B, I, K and L approximately 50 microns.