Blast-induced shear-related injuries in brain. H&E stained sections from a rat sacrificed 10 months after receiving 3 × 74.5 kPa blast exposures. Panels A, B and D are from serial sections taken 500 μm apart. Panel A shows a disruption of the normal continuity of the superficial cortical layers of the agranular insular cortex (arrows). The basolateral (BLA) and central amygdaloid (CA) nuclei are indicated. In panel B, a lesion contains tissue (arrows) that appears to have been avulsed and displaced. Panels D and E show two lesions. One appears to follow the course of a branch of the corticoamydaloid artery (white arrow). There is also an area of hemorrhage (black arrow), which is shown at higher power in panel E. The inset in panel E shows a higher power image of the hemorrhage itself. A polymorphonuclear leukocyte is indicated by an arrowhead. Sections from control animals are shown in panels C and F. Scale bar: 200 μm A, C and D; 100 μm B and F; 50 μm E. Scale bar for inset in panel E: 10 μm.