Lithium treatment improved the behavioral/memory deficiencies of PS1xAPP mice. (A) Open-field test. One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences between groups in both distance (F(3,24) = 6.33; p = 0.006) and velocity F(3,24) = 8.02, p = 0.002). Post-hoc analysis showed significant differences in PS1xAPP control compared with WT/PS1 and PS1xAPP lithium (p < 0.05). (B) Behavioral protocol and memory measures. Sixty min after habituation to the open-field, animals received three samples trials with 120 min inter-trial as depicted. Each symbol (triangle and star) represents one type of object. One-way ANOVA F(3,24) = 21.15 p = 0.0001) revealed significant differences between groups in place memory index. Post-hoc analysis showed significant difference in PS1xAPP control compared with WT/PS1 controls and PS1xAPP lithium.