Neurons and axons within neocortical Arctic Aβ plaques. a and b: Sections of frontal cortex immunostained with the abAβx-42 demonstrate occurrence of intact looking neuronal perikarya within a plaque (arrows) in Sw2 patient’s brain (a; see also Figure 8c) and within a cotton wool plaque in a PS1Δ9 AD patient’s brain (b). c: Representative confocal z-scan (monolayer; x–y; x–z and y–z projections) of a 50μm section from Sw2 patient’s temporal cortex displays numerous seemingly healthy neurofilament (NF) positive axonal structures (red) within and penetrating an abAβ17–24 positive Aβ deposit (green). d: A 50μm 3D projection of the region indicated by an open arrow in Figure 7c, also displays preserved axons within the Aβ deposits. (bar in a and b 40 μm; bar in c 40 μm for c and d).