Inflammatory markers. ELISA results of IL-1β (A), TNF-α (B) and IL-10 (C) levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (D-F). Increased levels of IL-1β and TNF-α are evident in both prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of mTBI rats but housing animals in EE after injury modulated the upregulation in these pro-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 is decreased in mTBI rats assigned in the control environment compared to the mTBI rats housed in EE. Sham groups show minimal expression of both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01.