Histological features from simulated biopsies of neurodegenerative diseases diagnosed in the study. (a) Alzheimer’s disease illustrating the high density of tau positive neuropil threads, neuritic plaques and a neurofibrillary tangle (inset) (anti-tau). (b) Alzheimer’s disease revealing Aβ positive plaques in the cortex and evidence of amyloid angiopathy (anti-Aβ). (c) Multiple system atrophy (MSA) showing numerous p62 positive and α-synuclein positive (inset) oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions in cerebral white matter. (d) Corticobasal degeneration showing a tau positive astrocytic plaque in the cortex (anti-tau). (e) Huntington’s disease revealing p62 positive intranuclear inclusions within neurones (anti-p62). (f) Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP) showing TDP-43 positive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in the neocortex (anti-TDP-43). (g) Dementia with Lewy bodies illustrating α-synuclein positive Lewy bodies in the neocortex and a Lewy body at higher magnification (inset) (anti-α-synuclein). (h) Batten’s disease (neuronal ceroid lipfuscinosis type 2) showing enlarged neurones with excess granular cytoplasmic material (H&E). Main pictures (a), (b) show ×20 magnifications; (c), (d) (g) show ×40 magnifications, (f) (h) and inset for (a) show ×60 magnifications. (e) and inset for (c) show ×120 magnifications and inset for (g) shows × 100 magnification.