Immunohistochemical staining of CHOP and XBP1 expression in spinal cord EAE lesions. CHOP and XBP1 were positively expressed in spinal cord EAE lesions (b &g, respectively) but were minimal or absent in IFA control tissue (a &f). At a higher magnification (h), clear positive/nuclear staining of cells with morphological ‘street-like’ features of oligodendrcoytes is present. A ventro-lateral white matter lesion dual-labelled using antibodies to SMI32, NeuN and CHOP shows a large number of CHOP-positive cells with features consistent with microglia/macrophages within the lesion centre (d). Co-localisation of CHOP in macrophage/microglia was confirmed (see ‘e’) by dual immunofluorescence (Iba1+/green, CHOP/red). Scale bars = 100 μm (d), 50 μm (a-c; e, f-g), 20 μm (h).