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Fig. 4 | Acta Neuropathologica Communications

Fig. 4

From: Neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation in the postnatal frontal cortex in Down syndrome

Fig. 4

Images showing SMI-32 immunostaining in NTD at 28 (A, B), 41 (C, D), and 174 wk (E, F) and in DS at 32 (G, H), 44 (I, J), and 196 wk (KL). In the youngest 28 wk NTD case, lightly labeled SMI-32-ir cells pyramidal were found in layer V (A, B). Note the increase in SMI-32 immunoreactivity at 32 weeks in DS (G, H). At 41 and 44 wk, SMI-32-ir pyramidal cells were observed in layers III and V in NTD (C, D), whereas none were seen in DS (I, J). In the oldest cases, 174 wk NTD and 196 wk DS, strong SMI-32-ir pyramidal cells with apical processes were observed in layers III and V (E, F, K, L). Note the presence of many more basal process (arrows) in SMI-32 positive pyramidal neurons in layer V in the oldest 174 wk NTD compared to 196 wk DS case. M Dot plot showing no significant differences in SMI-32-ir cell counts between groups or within groups between SG and IG layers (NTD: n = 9, DS: n = 10) (Mann–Whitney rank sum test, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Notably, the IG area (V–VI) in NTD showed the highest SMI-32-ir cell count. Scale bars = 50 µm

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