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Table 2 Study 2 — Electron microscopy identification of axon pathological features (Fig. 4). Two -way ANOVA results with Holm-Sidak post hoc test and Cohen’s d effect size

From: Acute axon damage and demyelination are mitigated by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) therapy after experimental traumatic brain injury

Outcome measure F (DFn, DFd); p-value Adjusted p-value Cohen’s d effect size
3-day
Intact myelinated
Interaction:
F1,31 = 0.5948, p = 0.4464
Injury:
F1,31 = 9.045, p = 0.0052
Drug:
F1,31 = 1.863, p = 0.1821
sham veh vs TBI veh:
ns, p = 0.0527
sham 4-AP vs TBI 4-AP:
ns, p = 0.4255
TBI veh vs TBI 4-AP:
ns, p = 0.4255
sham veh vs TBI veh:
d = 1.212
sham 4-AP vs TBI 4-AP:
d = 0.799
TBI veh vs TBI 4-AP:
d = 0.691
3-day
Axons with swollen mitochondria
Interaction:
F1,31 = 0.07855, p = 0.7811
Injury:
F1,31 = 63.85, p < 0.0001
Drug:
F1,31 = 0.04218, p = 8386
sham veh vs TBI veh:
p < 0.0001
sham 4-AP vs TBI 4-AP:
p < 0.0001
TBI veh vs TBI 4-AP:
ns, p = 0.9310
sham veh vs TBI veh:
d = 2.955
sham 4-AP vs TBI 4-AP:
d = 2.398
TBI veh vs TBI 4-AP:
d = 0.115
3-day
Damaged axons
Interaction:
F1,31 = 1.236, p = 0.2749
Injury:
F1,31 = 205.8, p < 0.0001
Drug:
F1,31 = 1.295, p = 0.2639
sham veh vs TBI veh:
p < 0.0001
sham 4-AP vs TBI 4-AP:
p < 0.0001
TBI veh vs TBI 4-AP:
ns, p = 0.2383
sham veh vs TBI veh:
d = 4.232
sham 4-AP vs TBI 4-AP:
d = 6.550
TBI veh vs TBI 4-AP:
d = 0.539
3-day
De/unmyelinated axons
Interaction:
F1,31 = 3.382, p = 0.0755
Injury:
F1,31 = 49.34, p < 0.0001
Drug:
F1,31 = 3.032, p = 0.0916
sham veh vs TBI veh:
p < 0.0001
sham 4-AP vs TBI 4-AP:
p = 0.0035
TBI veh vs TBI 4-AP:
p = 0.0360
sham veh vs TBI veh:
d = 3.144
sham 4-AP vs TBI 4-AP:
d = 1.677
TBI veh vs TBI 4-AP:
d = 1.140
7-day
Intact myelinated
Interaction:
F1,35 = 4.099, p = 0.0506
Injury:
F1,35 = 14.27, p = 0.0006
Drug:
F1,35 = 0.3801, p = 0.5416
sham veh vs TBI veh:
p = 0.0012
sham 4-AP vs TBI 4-AP:
ns, p = 0.4061
TBI veh vs TBI 4-AP:
ns, p = 0.1868
sham veh vs TBI veh:
d = 1.707
sham 4-AP vs TBI 4-AP:
d = 0.636
TBI veh vs TBI 4-AP:
d = 0.772
7-day
Axons with swollen mitochondria
Interaction:
F1,35 = 5.852, p = 0.0209
Injury:
F1,35 = 203.3, p < 0.0001
Drug:
F1,35 = 8.069, p = 0.0075
sham veh vs TBI veh:
p < 0.0001
sham 4-AP vs TBI 4-AP:
p < 0.0001
TBI veh vs TBI 4-AP:
p = 0.0012
sham veh vs TBI veh:
d = 4.879
sham 4-AP vs TBI 4-AP:
d = 4.386
TBI veh vs TBI 4-AP:
d = 1.247
7-day
Damaged axons
Interaction:
F1,35 = 20.73, p < 0.0001
Injury:
F1,35 = 170.1, p < 0.0001
Drug:
F1,35 = 20.73, p < 0.0001
sham veh vs TBI veh:
p < 0.0001
sham 4-AP vs TBI 4-AP:
p < 0.0001
TBI veh vs TBI 4-AP:
p < 0.0001
sham veh vs TBI veh:
d = 4.235
sham 4-AP vs TBI 4-AP:
d = 6.596
TBI veh vs TBI 4-AP:
d = 2.094
7-day
De/unmyelinated axons
Interaction:
F1,35 = 16.83, p = 0.0002
Injury:
F1,35 = 32.71, p < 0.0001
Drug:
F1,35 = 15.33, p = 0.0004
sham veh vs TBI veh:
p < 0.0001
sham 4-AP vs TBI 4-AP:
ns, p = 0.4963
TBI veh vs TBI 4-AP:
p < 0.0001
sham veh vs TBI veh:
d = 2.618
sham 4-AP vs TBI 4-AP:
d = 0.723
TBI veh vs TBI 4-AP:
d = 1.973
  1. veh Saline vehicle control; ns: non-significant (p > 0.05). Sham veh vs sham 4-AP ns for each measure (p > 0.4 or higher)