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Table 1 Summary of clinical information

From: White matter injury but not germinal matrix hemorrhage induces elevated osteopontin expression in human preterm brains

Group and Case   Sex GA at birth (weeks+ days) Postnatal age PMA at death (weeks+ days) Birth weight (g) Clinical context Infection Neuropathology
Control          
1   M 25 + 3 21 h 7 m 25 + 3 820 Ass IUGR (twin) None Edematous brain with transtentorial herniation of the unci, white matter patchy astrocytosis
2   M 23 + 6 9 h 51 m 23 + 6 520 Ass IUGR (twin) None Leptomeninges congested with focal hemorrhages, drop out of neurons
3   M 26 + 2 43 h 26 + 3 511.4 TTF (triplet), Ass IUGR, pulmonary hemorrhage None None
4   F 24 + 1 4 h 40 m 24 + 1 660 Oligohydramnios, extreme prematurity, congestive heart failure AAAFI None
5   M 23 + 4 IUD/Stillbirth 23 + 4 610   AAAFI None
6   M 28 + 1  < 1 h 28 + 1 1308.4 Oligohydramnios, lung hypoplasia, congestive heart failure None None
7   M 22 + 0 TOP 22 + 0 401.2 Anhydramnios, renal agenesis None None
WMI          
8   M 24 + 0 5w 1d 8 h 25 m 29 + 1 1010 Retroplacental hemorrhage AAAFI, necrotizing enterocolitis PVMWI, patchy WM gliosis, oedema, laminar necrosis, and neuron loss (HI)
9   M 29 + 3 11 h 17 m 29 + 3 1630 TTF, hydrops fetalis AAAFI PVWMI, patchy reactive astrocytosis, drop out of neurons
10   M 26 + 5 1d 7 h 52 m 26 + 6 641.4 Ass IUGR (twin), oligohydramnios, congestive heart failure None PVWMI, cerebellar hemorrhages, oedema, white matter gliosis
11   M 24 + 6 16d 19 h 10 m 27 + 0 715.4 PPROM, acute necrotizing pneumonia AAAFI PVWMI, focal neuron loss (HI), drop out of neurons, oedema
12   M 26 + 6 2d 20 h 46 m 27 + 1 807.6 TTF None Oedema, degenerating neurons, perivascular hemorrhages, neuron loss, apoptotic neurons, PVL (parietal)
13   F 27 + 5 22d 30 + 6 1440 Placental hemorrhage, congestive heart failure with edematous None Extensive PVL (on MRI), mildly dilated ventricles, drop out of neurons, oedema
14   F 27 + 0 7d 28 + 0 858.6 IUGR, congestive heart failure Necrotizing enterocolitis Oedema, focal neuronal loss (HI), patchy gliosis in PVWM, PVL (on MRI) right IVH (grade II) – on cranial US
GMH Grade         
15 II M 22 + 0 NND 22 + 0 476 Congestive heart failure AAAFI/ Chorio-amnionitis IVH/GMH, oedema, astrocytosis in white matter of dentate, focal neuronal loss in BG
16 I M 27 + 5 10d 11 h 28 m 29 + 1 940 Congestive heart failure AAAFI Bilateral GMH/IVH (in situ)
17 III M 24 + 0 4w 6d 19 h 12 m 28 + 6 596 Acute pneumonia, heart failure AAAFI Multiple GMH with focal rupture, oedema, patchy astrocytosis, some neuronal loss
18 I F 26 + 2 18d 28 + 6 1126.8 Ass IUGR, congestive heart failure Necrotizing enterocolitis Focal GMH, hemorrhage of right cerebellum WM gliosis
19 III M 24 + 6 53d 32 + 3 1637 Congestive heart failure CMV (mild) GMH, patchy WM gliosis, focal neuronal loss (HI), mild ventriculomegaly
20 II M 22 + 5 4 h 9 m 22 + 5 530 Mild retroplacental hemorrhage AAAFI GMH, oedema
21 IV F 24 + 1 2d 3 h 37 m 24 + 3 460 Prematurity, congestive heart failure, Ass IUGR None GMH, oedema
  1. Gestational age (GA), postmenstrual age (PMA), asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction (Ass IUGR), acute ascending amniotic fluid infection (AAAFI), white matter injury (WMI), germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH), hypoxic-ischemic (HI), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), intrauterine death (IUD), periventricular white matter injury (PVWMI), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM), termination of pregnancy (TOP), Twin-Twin Transfusion (TTF), neonatal death (NND). *Drop out of neurons refers to Ammons’s horn, Purkijne cells, and dentate. GMH grades: I: hemorrhage confined to the GM, II: intraventricular extension involving ˂50% of the ventricle, III: extension of hemorrhage into a dilated ventricle or intraventricular extension involving ˃50% of the ventricle, IV: extension of hemorrhage into the surrounding parenchyma