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Fig. 11 | Acta Neuropathologica Communications

Fig. 11

From: In Parkinson's patient-derived dopamine neurons, the triplication of α-synuclein locus induces distinctive firing pattern by impeding D2 receptor autoinhibition

Fig. 11

The depolarization-induced dopamine release is lower in AST-derived dopamine neurons. a Cartoon shows the experimental design for the detection of dopamine released from AST- or NAS-derived dopamine neurons. b The representative DIC image (left) shows: the stimulating electrode in cell-attached configuration, the neuron and sniffer cells (GRABDA4.4-expressing HEK293 cells) (middle) co-cultured with the neurons 24 h before experiments. The right panel shows the merged image (scale bar, 50 μm). c Via the cell-attached experimental configuration, a NAS- or AST-derived dopamine neuron was stimulated using a brief (10-ms) episodic (once every 1 s) depolarizing current (100 pA) pulse. The florescence intensity of sniffer cells rapidly increased following electrical stimulations, indirectly measuring fold change (ΔF /F0) in dopamine release from the neuron. The fluorescence signals were normalized to the averaged intensity of first 60 s for each experimental condition. The average florescence intensity of sniffer cells co-cultured with the AST-derived dopamine neuron was lower than those co-cultured with the NAS-derived dopamine neuron (†p < 0.05, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test). The experiments and analyses are performed via a blinded experimental design

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