Skip to main content

Table 1 A list of molecules identified to contribute to the establishment of the mesenchymal signature in GBM

From: Perspective of mesenchymal transformation in glioblastoma

Category Name Identified Mode of Actions Potent Inhibitor(s) References
Master transcriptional regulators STAT3 Normally operate opposing signals (neurogenesis versus gliogenesis) combined expression is linked to the mesenchymal signature YM155/AZD1480/ ruxolitinib [16, 70, 184]
  C/EBPβ N/A  
  TAZ TAZ–TEAD interaction / cooperates with PDGF-B Verteporfin [10, 156]
Other proteins S100A4 Regulates SNAIL2, ZEB1 and the mesenchymal signature genes N/A [21]
  Prosaposin TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway LY2109761 (TGF‐β1 inhibitor) [58]
  Sortilin (GSK-3β)/β-catenin/Twist signaling axis AF38469 [172]
  BIRC3 Induced by hypoxia N/A [157]
  FoxM1 Activation loop of ADAM17/EGFR/GSK3β TAPI-2 [179]
  Nrf2 Positive feedback loop between SQSTM1/p62 and Nrf2 N/A [118]
  PBX3 Activation of MEK/ERK1/2 N/A [167]
  FOXO1 Regulates mesenchymal marker proteins (N-cadherin, Vimentin, CD44, and YKL‐40) AS1842856 (type 2 diabetes mellitus) [97]
  SIN3a (hepatic insulin sensitivity) [68]
Enzymes ST3GAL1 TGFβ signaling pathways SB431542 (TGFβ inhibitor) [20]
  AL10 (lung cancer) [18]
  TGM2 Regulates C/EBPβ expression directly by polymerization of GADD153 via NF-κB activation GK921 [174]
microRNAs miR-23a miR-23a/HOXD10 axis N/A [168]
  miR-10b HOXD10/NOTCH1/TP53/PAX6 axis N/A [74]
  miR-504 Negatively regulates FZD7-mediated Wnt–β-catenin pathway N/A [76]
  miR-128a/miR-504 Negatively regulates expression of mesenchymal markers (YKL-40, CD44, and Vimentin) N/A [82]