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Fig. 6 | Acta Neuropathologica Communications

Fig. 6

From: Neuroinflammation and protein pathology in Parkinson’s disease dementia

Fig. 6

Expression of inflammatory cytokines in PD and control brains. Fold change in cytokine gene expression in the PD group relative to the control group. The dotted line marks the control group (Fold change = 1 indicates same levels of gene expression as in controls. Fold-change > 1 indicates increased gene expression, while < 1 denotes decreased expression compared to controls). a In the substantia nigra, IL-1β was significantly upregulated in the PD group compared to controls (two-tailed unpaired t-test, t(17) = 2.263, p = 0.037; Control n = 5, PD n = 14). b, c No differences in cytokine expression were observed in the amygdala (two-tailed unpaired t-test, p > 0.05; Control = 5, PD = 8) and the hippocampus (two-tailed unpaired t-test, p > 0.05; Control n = 5, PD n = 13). d In the frontal cortex of PD cases, IL-1β was more highly expressed compared to controls (two-tailed unpaired t-test, t(15) = 2.278, p = 0.038; Control n = 6, PD n = 11). Fold change = 2−∆∆CT. *p < 0.05

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