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Fig. 4 | Acta Neuropathologica Communications

Fig. 4

From: Neuroinflammation and protein pathology in Parkinson’s disease dementia

Fig. 4

Microglial activation and astrogliosis in extra-nigral brain regions. a Representative image of HLA-DR+ microglia in the amygdala of a control (left) and a Parkinson’s brain (right). b Representative image of astrocytic GFAP immunostaining in the amygdala of a control (left) and a Parkinson’s brain (right). c Quantification of activated (enlarged amoeboid) microglia per mm2. There was a significant increase in the number of activated microglia in the amygdala of PDD cases compared to controls (Kruskal–Wallis with Dunn’s multiple comparisons test, p = 0.039; Control vs PDD p = 0.045). d Quantification of the total GFAP-stained area per mm2 (Kruskal–Wallis with Dunn’s multiple comparisons test, p > 0.05). AMG: Control n = 10, PDND n = 13, PDD n = 11; HIPP/ERC/OTC: Control n = 8, PDND n = 13, PDD n = 10; PFC: Control n = 13, PDND n = 15, PDD n = 7. PPC: Control n = 13, PDND n = 17, PDD n = 11. PDND Parkinson’s disease no dementia, PDD Parkinson’s disease dementia, AMG amygdala, HIPP hippocampus, ERC entorhinal cortex, OTC occipitotemporal cortex, PFC prefrontal cortex, PPC posterior parietal cortex. Scale bar: 100 μm. *p < 0.05

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