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Fig. 3 | Acta Neuropathologica Communications

Fig. 3

From: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy aggravates perivascular clearance impairment in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model

Fig. 3

Augmentation of vascular pulsation with cerebral amyloid angiopathy progression. a Representative in vivo image of the vasculature obtained using two-photon microscopy. Vascular pulsations were recorded using line scanning, and measured along the cerebrovascular tree. Each vessel type in the cerebrovascular tree is marked with a different color. Cortical surface artery (red line), penetrating artery (light red line), ascending vein (light blue line), and surface vein (navy line). Scale bar = 50 µm. b Pulsatility index in the cerebrovascular network. [surface artery, p = 0.0132 (age); penetrating artery, p = 0.0032 (genotype*age interaction); surface vein, p = 0.0253 (age), p < 0.0001 (genotype), two-way ANOVA) (mid Wt = 6, mid Tg = 6, old Wt = 6, old Tg = 7)]. c Progression of CAA in APP/PS1 mice. Amyloid accumulation in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) can be observed in mid (left) and old Tg (right). CAA is not observed in the veins (V). Scale bar = 100 µm. d, e Magnified image of the surface artery. The arterial diameter (A) remains relatively constant compared to the venous diameter (V) in mid Tg (d). Note the reduction in arterial diameter (white arrowhead) in segments with excessive CAA in old Tg (e). Scale bar = 100 µm. f Comparison of arterial vascular diameter. The decrease in vascular diameter was significant in surface arteries. [surface artery, p = 0.0374 (genotype*age interaction), p = 0.0028 (genotype); penetrating artery, p = 0.0219 (age), p = 0.0186 (genotype)]. g, h Comparison between vascular pulsation in segments with (dotted white lines) and without CAA (white lines) in mid (g) and old Tg (h). Scale bar = 100 µm. i, j Effect of CAA on vascular pulsation in surface (i) and penetrating arteries (j). [surface artery, p = 0.0037 (CAA), p = 0.0449 (age)]. Note that the pulsatility index markedly increased in the CAA-positive vessels in mid Tg (mid Tg; n = 6, old Tg; n = 7). k, l Effect of CAA on the vascular diameter of surface (k) and penetrating arteries (l). [surface artery, p = 0.0430 (age)]. Note that the decrease in vascular diameter is more prominent in CAA-positive vessels. All data are presented as the mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001 two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni’s post hoc test

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