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Table 5 Cytokines/Chemokines in CSF of patients with paraneoplastic anti-NMDAR encephalitis and anti-NMDAR encephalitis without teratoma, negative symptom controls

From: Co-expression of NMDA-receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B in dysplastic neurons of teratomas in patients with paraneoplastic NMDA-receptor-encephalitis: a retrospective clinico-pathology study of 159 patients

Cytokines/ Chemokines Paraneoplastic anti-NMDARE (P, medium, range; pg/ml) Anti-NMDARE without teratoma (N, medium, range; pg/ml) Negative symptom control (C, medium, range; pg/ml) P value
P vs Na P vs Ca
TNF-α 3.19(2.83–3.55) 3.19(2.32–8.15) 2.49(1.84–3.55) 0.613 0.039
IFN-γ 47.68(46.03–59.35) 46.03(30.12–59.35) 42.77(37.94–57.67) 0.286 0.083
CXCL9 174(121–336) 227(121–443) 227(121–336) 0.246 0.724
CXCL10 69.03(3.53–147) 15.6(1.82–7002) 4.49(2.26–147) 0.793 0.088
IL-2 415(345–458) 460(318–630) 408(327–564) 0.324 0.831
IL-4 16.17(11.77–31.30) 26.07(11.77–49.06) 17.72(8.66–36.3) 0.099 0.914
IL-5 1.83(1.68–2.25) 1.97(1.13–4.5) 1.68(1.41–2.25) 0.732 0.424
GM-CSF 12.56(4.43–18.44) 5.31(2.77–69.48) 4(2.02–18.44) 0.356 0.025
G-CSF 26.07(15.37–30.44) 26.9(15.37–110) 27.62(18.59–41.01) 0.429 0.52
IL-6 1.33(0.88–11.33) 3.26(1.15–68.3) 1.73(1.15–11.33) 0.158 0.392
IL-8 50.79(17.89–87.97) 58.47(11.28–150) 25.54(3.96–87.97) 0.694 0.055
IL-17A 0.81(−0.81) 0.81(−5.02) 0.81(−2.79) 0.279 0.645
IL-10 6.09(4.89–7.58) 5.2 (2.16–22.88) 4.45(2.31–6.48) 0.393 0.033
APRIL 152(56.68–194) 147(48.19–973) 74.19(35.96–175) 0.767 0.134
BAFF 157.5(139–266) 189.5(68.03–1011) 266(174–314) 0.491 0.055
CXCL13 27.23(14.07–57.17) 29.67(11.48–507) 12.52(10.43–33.96) 0.818 0.055
CCL2 736.5(656–771) 788(293–1868) 852(447–2665) 0.491 0.286
CXCL1 52(−63.15) 63.15(23.42–170) 34.92(−71.33) 0.155 0.668
IFN-α 2.73(1.94–5.86) 3.19(1.7–8.29) 2.72(1.94–5.86) 0.576 0.914
IL-1α 43.7(32.68–45.56) 68.91(39.47–215) 39.47(34.04–50.27) 0.026 0.522
IL-1β 1.42(0.71–1.83) 1.42(0.71–2.96) 1.24(1.05–1.42) 0.567 0.489
IL-12 124.5(− 133) 101(− 307) 56.35(−133) 0.766 0.831
VEGF-A 36.65(26.66–45.66) 52.68(32.13–119) 42.65(16.95–52.68) 0.026 0.67
  1. P Paraneoplastic anti-NMDARE, N Anti-NMDARE without teratoma, C Negative control, CCL C-C motif chemokine ligand, CXCL C-X-C motif chemokine ligand, IFN interferon, IL interleukin, TNF tumour necrosis factor, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor A, APRIL a proliferation-inducing ligand, BAFF B-cell-activating factor belonging to the tumour necrosis factor family, G-CSF granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, GM-CSF granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
  2. aMann-Whitney U test and Bonferroni correction (α = 0.025)