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Table 2 Comparisons between paraneoplastic anti-NMDARE and anti-NMDARE groups without teratoma

From: Co-expression of NMDA-receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B in dysplastic neurons of teratomas in patients with paraneoplastic NMDA-receptor-encephalitis: a retrospective clinico-pathology study of 159 patients

  Total, n(%) Paraneoplastic anti-NMDARE, n(%) Anti-NMDARE without teratoma, n(%) P values
Total 159 12 (7.5%) 147 (92.5%)
Age, years, median (range) 25(9–78) 21 (17–43) 26 (9–78) 0.445b
Sex (female) 89(56.0%) 11 (91.7%) 78 (53.1%) 0.01a
Psychiatric symptoms 151 (95%) 11 (91.7%) 140 (95.2%) 0.474c
Seizure 130 (81.8%) 12 (100%) 118 (80.3%) 0.125c
Speech disturbances 60/141(42.6%) 5/11 (45.6%) 55/130 (42.3%) 1c
Dyskinesias and movement disorders 90 (56.6%) 9 (75%) 81 (55.1%) 0.384a
Autonomic instability 53 (33.3%) 6 (50%) 47 (32.0%) 0.53c
Memory deficits 97/119 (81.5%) 6/8 (75.0%) 91/111 (82.0%) 0.64c
Decreased consciousness 97 (61.0%) 10 (83.3%) 87 (59.2%) 0.129c
Central hypoventilation 33 (20.8%) 8 (66.7%) 25 (17.0%) < 0.001c
Complications 106 (66.7%) 10 (83.3%) 96 (65.3%) 0.34c
Abnormal MRI findings 61/148 (41.2%) 5/11 (45.5%) 56/137 (40.9%) 0.761c
Abnormal EEG findings 113/137 (82.5%) 11/12 (91.6%) 102/125 (81.6%) 1c
Abnormal CSF findings 102 (64.2%) 8 (66.7%) 94 (63.9%) 1c
Antibody titre in CSF
 Weakly positive 8 0 8 0.004 b
 Positive 70 1 69
Strongly positive 81 11 70
Antibody titres in serum
 Negative 69/157 3 66/145 0.114 b
 Weakly positive 17/157 1 16/145
 Positive 58/157 6 52/145
 Strongly positive 13/157 2 11/145
Treatment
 IVIG(times) 1 (0–4) 2 (1–4) 1 (0–3) 0.002 b
 MTP(times) 1 (0–3) 1 (0–2) 1 (0–3) 0.991 b
 IVIG+MTP(times) 2 (1–5) 3 (1–5) 2 (1–5) 0.037 b
 IVIG+MTP + RTX(times) 2 (1–8) 3 (1–8) 2 (1–8) 0.042 b
 Interval from onset to receive IT, days, median (IQR) 24 (4–365) 12c (7–75) 25 (4–365) 0.002 b
 In hospital days, median (IQR) 25 (3–400) 57.5 (15–400) 24 (3–118) 0.001 b
 Need of ICU 20(12.6%) 7(58.3%) 13 (8.8%) < 0.001c
Outcome
 Good outcome (mRS = 0–2) 125/144 (86.8%) 11/12 (91.7%) 114/132 (86.4%) 1c
 Death 12/144 (8.3%) 1/12 (8.3%) 11/132 (8.3%) 1c
 Relapse 13/144 (9.0%) 1/12 (8.3%) 12/132 (9.1%) 1c
  1. CSF cerebrospinal fluid, IVIG intravenous immunoglobulin, MTP methylprednisolone, RTX rituximab, IQR interquartile range, ICU intensive care unit, mRS modified Rankin Scale
  2. aChi-squared test
  3. bMann-Whitney U test
  4. cFisher’s exact test