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Table 2 Putative GVB observations in experimental models and aged animals

From: Untangling the origin and function of granulovacuolar degeneration bodies in neurodegenerative proteinopathies

  1. Model: type of model, method, studied species and details of the model are listed. GVB observation: for experiments in which a control group was included, it is indicated whether the GVB load was higher in the experimental/symptomatic/aged group than in the control/asymptomatic/younger group. Color-coding is used to denote if studies meet the criteria for validation of GVB identity (Table 1; Fig. 1). Green: criterion met; red: criterion not met. For criterion 2, the number of additional common GVB markers used in the study is noted. For criterion 3, the method used to meet this criterion is indicated. Note that the detection of putative GVBs by EM without immunolabeling is not sufficient to meet criterion 3. Other antibodies and methods used to probe GVBs are listed, with antibody names or phospho-epitopes shown in brackets. Tau pathology: the detection of tau pathology in the animals/cultures and additional notes hereon are listed. Brain areas with GVB detection (Brain areas) and the earliest age or DIV at which GVBs were reported (Time) are shown. Reference to publications is included (Ref). a Putative GVBs (possibly) detected in nucleus rather than cytoplasm. b NFT-like structures were seen by H&E staining or on EM, but no anti-tau antibodies or silver staining were used. c Putative GVBs were observed by light microscopy without labeling. d No typical example of putative GVBs shown. Note that for clarity models of Aβ amyloidosis and aged non-Tg littermates of tau Tg mice are not included in this table
  2. Abbreviations: Ab antibody, CA cornu ammonis, Chrom GVB morphology visualized by chromogenic peroxidase-catalyzed immunodetection of GVB core marker, ctrl control(s), ctx cortex, DIV days in vitro, GVB granulovacuolar degeneration body, GVB+ GVB-containing, EM electron microscopy without immunodetection of GVB marker, H&E hematoxylin and eosin, Immuno-EM electron microscopy with immunodetection of GVB marker, NA not available, p phosphorylated, Ref reference, Tg transgenic, > higher than, - not applicable. For abbreviations of protein names and antibodies see “List of abbreviations”