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Fig. 2 | Acta Neuropathologica Communications

Fig. 2

From: Different effects of constitutive and induced microbiota modulation on microglia in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

Fig. 2

Restored memory deficits in 5xFAD mice lacking microbes. (a-c) T-maze test performance of 10 months old SPF and GF 5xFAD mice, as well as aged-matched WT controls or (d-f) of 10 months old SPF and ABX 5xFAD mice, as well as WT controls. (g-i) Novel object recognition test (NOR) of 10 months old SPF and GF 5xFAD mice, as well as age-matched WT controls or (j-l) of 10 months old SPF and ABX 5xFAD mice, as well as respective WT controls. Each symbol represents one mouse. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. Significant differences were determined by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s post-hoc comparison test (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001). Data are representative of three independent experiments. (m) Representative immunofluorescence images of NeuN+ neurons (green) and TR+ (red) compact Aβ plaques in the subiculum (Sub), cornu ammonis (CA) 1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus of 10 months old SPF, GF and ABX-treated 5xFAD mice. Nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue). Overview of hippocampus and magnifications of subiculum, CA1, CA3 and DG (dashed lines) are shown. Scale bars represent 200 μm (overview) and 50 μm (inserts). Quantification of the number of NeuN+ neurons per mm2 in the subiculum (n), CA1 (o), CA3 (p) and DG (q) of sagittal hippocampal sections from SPF, GF and ABX-treated 5xFAD and age-matched WT mice. Each symbol represents one mouse. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. Significant differences were determined by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s post-hoc comparison test (**P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001). Data are representative of two independent experiments

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