Skip to main content

Table 2 List of cadaveric controls with recorded clinical features, demonstrating GCD. 50 controls with no history of seizures, that demonstrated presence of at least one type of GCD in the studied hippocampal section obtained from the archives of Seattle Children’s Hospital Department of Pathology (2014–2019), are tabulated. Other related clinical features obtained/analyzed were age of death, gender, post-mortem interval (PMI), presence or absence of GCD subtypes, clinical diagnoses like evidence of malformation/anomaly in the central nervous system (CNS), and/or of other CNS (acquired forms of CNS injury such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), cerebral edema) and non-CNS conditions. GW, gestational weeks; TT, tram-track; DA, disaggregated; mo, months

From: Hippocampal granule cell dispersion: a non-specific finding in pediatric patients with no history of seizures

Code Age of death (GW) Corrected age of death Gender PMI Seizure (Y/N) GCD (Y/N) Diagnoses
TT DA CNS malformation/ anomaly Other (CNS) Non-CNS conditions
C-1a 1 day (37GW) 37GW F 14 h N N Y
(focal DA)
large occipital encephalocele, focal dysplasia neuronal disorganization, HIE multiple congenital abnormalities
4 weeks (27GW) 31GW M 32 h N Y Y - RH-isoimmunization hydrops fetalis, liver failure, respiratory distress
C-3a 3 weeks (26GW) 29GW M 23 h N Y Y intraventricular hemorrhage, frontoparietal periventricular leukomalacia necrotizing enterocolitis and pneumatosis, sepsis
C-4a 3 weeks 3 weeks F 57.5 h N Y Y diffuse edema congenital diaphragmatic hernia, coagulopathy, defects in liver, spleen and kidney
C-5a 7 weeks (27GW) 28GW M 12 h N Y Y HIE with periventricular leukomalacia multi-organ hypoxic ischemic injury
C-6a 2.5mo (term) 10 weeks F 12 h N Y Y cerebral atrophy immunodeficiency disorder of undefined etiology, massive hepatomegaly, active bronchopneumonia, cardiomegaly
C-7a 15 days (28GW) 30GW F 6 h N Y Y congenital heart disease, acute multifocal pneumonia, congestion and hemorrhage
C-8a 3mo (35GW) 7 weeks F 17 h N Y Y cerebral atrophy with HIE, edema Trisomy 21, severe hepatic fibrosis with cholestasis, pneumonia, cardiac defects, liver and kidney injury
C-9a 2mo 8 weeks M 20 h N Y Y remote HIE without acute changes, focal cystic periventricular leukomalacia neonatal gastroschisis repair, cardiovascular defects
C-10a 3mo 12 weeks F 16 h N Y Y subacute HIE with uncal herniation congenital cardiovascular defects, 15q26-qter deletion, multi-organ hypoxia
C-11a 7 days (32GW) 33GW F 15 h N Y Y subdural hematoma, diffuse HIE with widespread gliosis and early mineralization, periventricular leukomalacia, hemorrhage, few pyknotic and karyorrhectic cells noted in hippocampus cystic necrosis of liver, respiratory failure, congested spleen
C-12a 2mo (37GW) 5 weeks F 8 h N Y Y diffuse mild cerebral WM gliosis complex congenital heart disease, cardiomegaly, aspiration pneumonitis
C-13a 8 years 8 years F 7 h N N Y hemorrhagic infarction, mild WM atrophy, DG hypoplasia and neuronal loss, gliosis methylmalonic acidemia, chronic liver failure, coagulopathy, severe diffuse bronchopneumonia, recurrent fevers
C-14a 2mo (term) 8 weeks F 20 h N Y Y remote HIE without acute changes, focal cystic periventricular leukomalacia neonatal gastroschisis repair, cardiovascular defects, Clostridium infection
C-15a 18 days 18 days M 13.5 h N Y Y kernicterus involving hippocampi, diffuse gliosis with periventricular eukomalacia Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome, respiratory failure, acute kidney injury, thymic cortical stress
C-16a 10 weeks (32GW) 2 weeks M 11 h N N Y liver dysfunction of uncertain etiology, cytomegalovirus infection
C-17a 23 days (25GW) 28GW M 16.25 h N Y Y severe intracranial hemorrhage necrotizing enterocolitis, severe pneumonia, pulmonary hemorrhage
C-18a 6 years 6 years F 68 h N Y Y craniosynostosis surgery GLIS3 mutation, hepatic fibrosis
C-19a 6 years 6 years M 15 h N Y Y diffuse infiltrating pontine glioma, mild ventriculomegaly
C-20b 12 h (38GW) 38GW M 38.5 h N Y Y HIE asystole at birth, bilaterallydilated ureters and bladder, increased extramedullary hematopoiesis
C-21a 3 days (38GW) 38GW M 15.75 h N N Y mild HIE and edema hemorrhagic and necrotic small bowel, anomalies in alimentary tract, liver failure
C-22a 8 weeks (34GW) 2 weeks M 8 h N Y Y mild ventriculomegaly mild diffuse gliosis of white matter Pentalogy of Cantrell, left pulmonary artery stenosis
C-23a 10 years 10 years M 11 h N Y Y   immunodeficiency, Pseudomonas and Aspergillus infection
C-24a 3 days (38GW) 38GW M 15.75 h N N Y mild edema and HIE hemorrhagic and necrotic small bowel, anomalies in alimentary tract, liver failure
C-25a 17 years 17 years M 59 h N N Y recurrent B cell lymphoblastic leukemia and aspergillosis
C-26a 4mo 4mo M 55 h N N Y axonal mixed sensory/ motor neuropathy deafness growth delay, respiratory distress
C-27a 2mo (32GW) term (40GW) F 58 h N N Y periventricular leukomalacia with acute HIE cardiopulmonary abnormalities, congenital cardiac anomalies, renomegaly
C-28a 1 week 1 week M 45 h N N Y HIE, periventricular leukomalacia with prominent gliosis and neuronal loss congestion and hemorrhage
C-29a 10mo 10mo F 46.5 h N N Y global chronic HIE, hippocampus shows mild loss of neurons in CA1 region heterotaxy syndrome, complex congenital heart disease
C-30a 3 years 3 years M 16.5 h N N Y HIE post cardiac arrest, early necrosis of hippocampus asthma, acute sepsis, cardiac arrest, stress atrophy
C-31a 3mo (42GW) 101 days F 13 h N N Y mild HIE respiratory distress, pulmonary vein stenosis
C-32a 14 days (28 week) 30GW M 16 h N N Y mild HIE, diffuse gliosis in WM massive subacute hepatic necrosis with iron overload, coagulopathy, chronic neonatal lung disease, multiple organ defects
C-33a 3 years 3 years M 20.5 h N N Y global developmental delay HIE with edema myopathy, cardiac failure, respiratory failure, infectious diseases, respiratory distress, sepsis
C-34a 5weeks (33GW) 39GW F 84 h N N Y necrotizing enterocolitis
C-35a 18 h 18 h M 14 h N N Y complex congenital heart disease, total anomalous pulmonary venous return, lymphatic distention
C-36a 17 years 17 years F 69.5 h N Y Y medulloblastoma, brain injury related to Aspergillus encephalo-meningitis, lateral ventriculomegaly widespread brain death pulmonary thrombi and congestion and hepatosplenomegaly
C-37a 9 days 9 days F 31 h N N Y HIE, brain injury liver steatosis
C-38a 6 h (41 5/7 GW) 1.5 weeks F 78 h N N Y HIE cardiac respiratory failure, coagulopathy, anemia, severe metabolic acidosis, in-utero feto-maternal hemorrhage
C-39a 16mo 16mo M 15 h N N Y multifocal brain infarction with global HIE (CA1 dispersed) diffuse adherent bowel, necrotizing soft tissue infections, cardiac arrest history
C-40a 4 weeks 4 weeks F 24 h N Y Y mild HIE with mild gliosis truncus arteriosus
C-41a 4 days (27GW) 27GW F 144 h N N Y widespread HIE splenic congestion
C-42a 8 years 8 years F 15 h N N Y subdural hematoma B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, sepsis, acute kidney injury, cardiac instability
C-43a 6mo 6mo M 41.5 h N N Y global remote HIE Denys-Drash Syndrome, chronic kidney disease, Pseudomonas abscess, multiple cardiac arrests
C-44a 6 years 6mo 6 years 6mo F 13 h N N Y diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma
C-45a 3 days (40 1/7GW) 40GW F 40.5 h N N Y profound hypoxemic respiratory failure, lung developmental arrest
C-46a 3 weeks (35GW) 38GW M 19 h N N Y acute HIE congenital heart disease, kidney hemorrhage
C-47a 16 days 16 days M 10 h N N Y HIE, diffuse WM gliosis, periventricular leukomalacia, subarachnoid hemorrhage complex congenital heart disease, status post-surgical repair
C-48a 7 weeks 7 weeks M 50 h N N Y necrotizing enterocolitis
C-49a 35GW 35GW M 63 h N Y N congenital pulmonary dysplasia, interstitial chromosomal deletion ch17
C-50a 6 days 6 days M 69 h N Y N subicular necrosis, acute HIE 22q11.2 chromosomal deletion, DiGeorge syndrome
  1. a based on microscopic evaluation of archived hippocampal sections
  2. b step sections as described in text