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Table 2 List of cadaveric controls with recorded clinical features, demonstrating GCD. 50 controls with no history of seizures, that demonstrated presence of at least one type of GCD in the studied hippocampal section obtained from the archives of Seattle Children’s Hospital Department of Pathology (2014–2019), are tabulated. Other related clinical features obtained/analyzed were age of death, gender, post-mortem interval (PMI), presence or absence of GCD subtypes, clinical diagnoses like evidence of malformation/anomaly in the central nervous system (CNS), and/or of other CNS (acquired forms of CNS injury such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), cerebral edema) and non-CNS conditions. GW, gestational weeks; TT, tram-track; DA, disaggregated; mo, months

From: Hippocampal granule cell dispersion: a non-specific finding in pediatric patients with no history of seizures

CodeAge of death (GW)Corrected age of deathGenderPMISeizure (Y/N)GCD (Y/N)Diagnoses
TTDACNS malformation/ anomalyOther (CNS)Non-CNS conditions
C-1a1 day (37GW)37GWF14 hNNY
(focal DA)
large occipital encephalocele, focal dysplasianeuronal disorganization, HIEmultiple congenital abnormalities
4 weeks (27GW)31GWM32 hNYY-RH-isoimmunization hydrops fetalis, liver failure, respiratory distress
C-3a3 weeks (26GW)29GWM23 hNYYintraventricular hemorrhage, frontoparietal periventricular leukomalacianecrotizing enterocolitis and pneumatosis, sepsis
C-4a3 weeks3 weeksF57.5 hNYYdiffuse edemacongenital diaphragmatic hernia, coagulopathy, defects in liver, spleen and kidney
C-5a7 weeks (27GW)28GWM12 hNYYHIE with periventricular leukomalaciamulti-organ hypoxic ischemic injury
C-6a2.5mo (term)10 weeksF12 hNYYcerebral atrophyimmunodeficiency disorder of undefined etiology, massive hepatomegaly, active bronchopneumonia, cardiomegaly
C-7a15 days (28GW)30GWF6 hNYYcongenital heart disease, acute multifocal pneumonia, congestion and hemorrhage
C-8a3mo (35GW)7 weeksF17 hNYYcerebral atrophy with HIE, edemaTrisomy 21, severe hepatic fibrosis with cholestasis, pneumonia, cardiac defects, liver and kidney injury
C-9a2mo8 weeksM20 hNYYremote HIE without acute changes, focal cystic periventricular leukomalacianeonatal gastroschisis repair, cardiovascular defects
C-10a3mo12 weeksF16 hNYYsubacute HIE with uncal herniationcongenital cardiovascular defects, 15q26-qter deletion, multi-organ hypoxia
C-11a7 days (32GW)33GWF15 hNYYsubdural hematoma, diffuse HIE with widespread gliosis and early mineralization, periventricular leukomalacia, hemorrhage, few pyknotic and karyorrhectic cells noted in hippocampuscystic necrosis of liver, respiratory failure, congested spleen
C-12a2mo (37GW)5 weeksF8 hNYYdiffuse mild cerebral WM gliosiscomplex congenital heart disease, cardiomegaly, aspiration pneumonitis
C-13a8 years8 yearsF7 hNNYhemorrhagic infarction, mild WM atrophy, DG hypoplasia and neuronal loss, gliosismethylmalonic acidemia, chronic liver failure, coagulopathy, severe diffuse bronchopneumonia, recurrent fevers
C-14a2mo (term)8 weeksF20 hNYYremote HIE without acute changes, focal cystic periventricular leukomalacianeonatal gastroschisis repair, cardiovascular defects, Clostridium infection
C-15a18 days18 daysM13.5 hNYYkernicterus involving hippocampi, diffuse gliosis with periventricular eukomalaciaBeckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome, respiratory failure, acute kidney injury, thymic cortical stress
C-16a10 weeks (32GW)2 weeksM11 hNNYliver dysfunction of uncertain etiology, cytomegalovirus infection
C-17a23 days (25GW)28GWM16.25 hNYYsevere intracranial hemorrhagenecrotizing enterocolitis, severe pneumonia, pulmonary hemorrhage
C-18a6 years6 yearsF68 hNYYcraniosynostosis surgeryGLIS3 mutation, hepatic fibrosis
C-19a6 years6 yearsM15 hNYYdiffuse infiltrating pontine glioma, mild ventriculomegaly
C-20b12 h (38GW)38GWM38.5 hNYYHIEasystole at birth, bilaterallydilated ureters and bladder, increased extramedullary hematopoiesis
C-21a3 days (38GW)38GWM15.75 hNNYmild HIE and edemahemorrhagic and necrotic small bowel, anomalies in alimentary tract, liver failure
C-22a8 weeks (34GW)2 weeksM8 hNYYmild ventriculomegalymild diffuse gliosis of white matterPentalogy of Cantrell, left pulmonary artery stenosis
C-23a10 years10 yearsM11 hNYY immunodeficiency, Pseudomonas and Aspergillus infection
C-24a3 days (38GW)38GWM15.75 hNNYmild edema and HIEhemorrhagic and necrotic small bowel, anomalies in alimentary tract, liver failure
C-25a17 years17 yearsM59 hNNYrecurrent B cell lymphoblastic leukemia and aspergillosis
C-26a4mo4moM55 hNNYaxonal mixed sensory/ motor neuropathydeafnessgrowth delay, respiratory distress
C-27a2mo (32GW)term (40GW)F58 hNNYperiventricular leukomalacia with acute HIEcardiopulmonary abnormalities, congenital cardiac anomalies, renomegaly
C-28a1 week1 weekM45 hNNYHIE, periventricular leukomalacia with prominent gliosis and neuronal losscongestion and hemorrhage
C-29a10mo10moF46.5 hNNYglobal chronic HIE, hippocampus shows mild loss of neurons in CA1 regionheterotaxy syndrome, complex congenital heart disease
C-30a3 years3 yearsM16.5 hNNYHIE post cardiac arrest, early necrosis of hippocampusasthma, acute sepsis, cardiac arrest, stress atrophy
C-31a3mo (42GW)101 daysF13 hNNYmild HIErespiratory distress, pulmonary vein stenosis
C-32a14 days (28 week)30GWM16 hNNYmild HIE, diffuse gliosis in WMmassive subacute hepatic necrosis with iron overload, coagulopathy, chronic neonatal lung disease, multiple organ defects
C-33a3 years3 yearsM20.5 hNNYglobal developmental delayHIE with edemamyopathy, cardiac failure, respiratory failure, infectious diseases, respiratory distress, sepsis
C-34a5weeks (33GW)39GWF84 hNNYnecrotizing enterocolitis
C-35a18 h18 hM14 hNNYcomplex congenital heart disease, total anomalous pulmonary venous return, lymphatic distention
C-36a17 years17 yearsF69.5 hNYYmedulloblastoma, brain injury related to Aspergillus encephalo-meningitis, lateral ventriculomegalywidespread brain deathpulmonary thrombi and congestion and hepatosplenomegaly
C-37a9 days9 daysF31 hNNYHIE, brain injuryliver steatosis
C-38a6 h (41 5/7 GW)1.5 weeksF78 hNNYHIEcardiac respiratory failure, coagulopathy, anemia, severe metabolic acidosis, in-utero feto-maternal hemorrhage
C-39a16mo16moM15 hNNYmultifocal brain infarction with global HIE (CA1 dispersed)diffuse adherent bowel, necrotizing soft tissue infections, cardiac arrest history
C-40a4 weeks4 weeksF24 hNYYmild HIE with mild gliosistruncus arteriosus
C-41a4 days (27GW)27GWF144 hNNYwidespread HIEsplenic congestion
C-42a8 years8 yearsF15 hNNYsubdural hematomaB-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, sepsis, acute kidney injury, cardiac instability
C-43a6mo6moM41.5 hNNYglobal remote HIEDenys-Drash Syndrome, chronic kidney disease, Pseudomonas abscess, multiple cardiac arrests
C-44a6 years 6mo6 years 6moF13 hNNYdiffuse intrinsic pontine glioma
C-45a3 days (40 1/7GW)40GWF40.5 hNNYprofound hypoxemic respiratory failure, lung developmental arrest
C-46a3 weeks (35GW)38GWM19 hNNYacute HIEcongenital heart disease, kidney hemorrhage
C-47a16 days16 daysM10 hNNYHIE, diffuse WM gliosis, periventricular leukomalacia, subarachnoid hemorrhagecomplex congenital heart disease, status post-surgical repair
C-48a7 weeks7 weeksM50 hNNYnecrotizing enterocolitis
C-49a35GW35GWM63 hNYNcongenital pulmonary dysplasia, interstitial chromosomal deletion ch17
C-50a6 days6 daysM69 hNYNsubicular necrosis, acute HIE22q11.2 chromosomal deletion, DiGeorge syndrome
  1. a based on microscopic evaluation of archived hippocampal sections
  2. b step sections as described in text