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Table 1 List of cadaveric epilepsy cases with recorded clinical features. 21 cadaveric epilepsy cases with history of single or multiple events of seizures, accompanied with a table of clinical history obtained from the archives of Seattle Children’s Hospital Department of Pathology (2014–2019), are tabulated. The features analyzed included age of death, gender, post-mortem interval (PMI), presence or absence of GCD subtypes, clinical diagnoses like seizure interval (from seizure onset until death), evidence of malformation/anomaly in the central nervous system (CNS), and/or of other CNS (acquired forms of CNS injury such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), cerebral edema) and non-CNS conditions. GW, gestational weeks; TT, tram-track; DA, disaggregated; mo, months

From: Hippocampal granule cell dispersion: a non-specific finding in pediatric patients with no history of seizures

Code Age of death (GW) Corrected age of death Gender PMI Seizure (Y/N) Seizure interval GCD (Y/N) Diagnoses
TT DA CNS malformation/anomaly Other (CNS) Non-CNS conditions
SZ-1a 7 days 7 days M 12 h Y < 24 h Y Y encephalopathy, seizures Proteus mirabilis septic shock, coagulopathy and acidosis, hypoxic respiratory failure
SZ-2a 6 years 6 years F 10 h Y 6 years; intractable N N global developmental delay, chronic seizure disorder with static encephalopathy hypoplastic cerebellum recurrent pulmonary infections
SZ-3a 16 years 16 years F 22 h Y 13 years N Y severe congenital neuromuscular disorder, complex status epilepticus severe gliosis and neuronal loss acute bronchopneumonia, cardiac arrest
SZ-4b 6 years 6 years M not known Y > 5 years; multiple episodes till death, intractable Y Y brain overgrowth with polymicrogyria, diffused cortical dysplasia, AKT3 R465W mutation, possibly SUDEP gliosis, mild ventriculomegaly congenital diaphragmatic hernia, coagulopathy, defects in liver, spleen and kidney
SZ-5a 3 years 3 years M 2 h Y 7 weeks; multiple episodes till death, intractable Y N subclinical status epilepticus cerebral edema, HIE, anoxic brain injury secondary to pulmonary arrest pulmonary arrest
SZ-6a 2 days 2 days F 21.5 h Y 2 days (possible seizures) Y Y cerebral edema, HIE acute chorioamnionitis with funisitis and three vessel umbilical vasculitis
SZ-7a 4 days 4 days M 38 h Y < 24 h N Y HIE severe acidosis, cardiorespiratory failure, visceral anomalies
SZ-8a 18mo 18mo M 26 h Y 1–3 months of age; no further seizures post-treatment of phenobarbital Y Y developmental delay and seizure disorder (2q21.1 duplication) focal neuronal loss and gliosis in hippocampus abdominal distension, brady-cardiac arrest, acute pan-lobar pneumonia
SZ-9a 2 years 2 years M 72 h Y 4 months; multiple episodes between first seizure and death N N retinoblastoma with diffuse leptomeningeal spread and direct infiltration of brain and spinal cord pulmonary edema, congestive hepatomegaly
SZ-10a 5 weeks (28GW) 33GW F 17.5 h Y < 24 h Y Y multiple seizure events hemorrhage and necrosis secondary to dural venous thrombosis. necrotizing enterocolitis
SZ-11a 12 years 12 years F 96 h Y 16 months; intractable N N cerebral edema, HIE and brain death appendicitis
SZ-12a 19 years 19 years M 216 h Y 14 years; intractable N N seizure disorder Trisomy 16p/monosomy 9p, respiratory distress syndrome, Pseudomonas pneumonia, cardiomegaly
SZ-13a 7 weeks (32 4/7 GW) 39 4/7 GW F 14 h Y 6 weeks (possible seizures) N Y epilepsy (focal apoptotic neurons within DG) severe pulmonary hypertension, veno-occlusive disease
SZ-14a 8 years 8 years F 65 h Y 2 years (sleep EEG done) N N encephalomalacia, hydrocephalus, seizures, developmental delay unbalanced chromosomal translocation, congenital mitral valve stenosis, heart failure
SZ-15a 7 weeks 7 weeks F 3 h Y 6 weeks N Y hypotonia and episodic breathing progressing to seizures elevated CSF and plasma glycine levels
SZ-16a 17 years 17 years F 96 h Y 5 days N N generalized tonic-clonic seizure, brain herniation acute hemorrhage, edema Type 1 diabetes, oligoarticular juvenile arthritis, celiac disease
SZ-17a 17 years 17 years M 64 h Y ~ 17 years; intractable N Y spastic quadriplegia, epilepsy, static leukoencephalopathy, ventriculomegaly white matter gliosis acute kidney injury, obstructive apnea, hypotonia
SZ-18a 8 days 8 days M 42 h Y 8 days
(onset at birth)
N N seizures (treated with antiepileptics) brain herniation, diffuse cerebral edema ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, hyperammonemia, hepatosplenomegaly
SZ-19a 3 years 3 years F 15.6 h Y 2.5 years N N severe craniofacial malformations, seizure history neurological injury, meningitis
SZ-20a 4 years 4 years M 15.5 h Y 16 months N N seizures (no recurrence post-treatment with medications), global developmental delay subacute diffuse CNS hemorrhagic necrosis with massive intraventricular blood clot multiple chromosomal abnormalities and associated chronic health problems, atypical lymphoid hyperplasia, concerning primary or secondary immunodeficiency
SZ-21a 9 years 9 years M 2 h Y 2 months N N refractory status epilepticus secondary to febrile infection-related status epilepticus, multiple events diffuse severe gliosis, patchy neuronal loss, dramatic loss of CA1 neurons
  1. a based on microscopic evaluation of archived hippocampal sections
  2. b case published in [3, 46]; unused right hemisphere was obtained from SCH morgue and pathological studies were done by RPK on the right hippocampus for the first time for this study