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Fig. 4 | Acta Neuropathologica Communications

Fig. 4

From: Hippocampal granule cell dispersion: a non-specific finding in pediatric patients with no history of seizures

Fig. 4

GCD occurrence does not correlate with increased hypoxia/ischemia or gliosis in both control and seizure cases. (a) Schematic of coronal human hippocampus; box showed the region of interest represented in (b-o). (b-s) Representative images of control and seizure hippocampal samples, with compact (C), tram-track (TT) and disaggregated (DA) DG, studied for injury markers GFAP and CD163. Enhancement of GFAP expression and increase in CD163+ cells mark gliosis and M2 macrophages respectively, both indicative of tissue injury. Although there was observable gliosis in most epilepsy brains (asterisk; b, f, h), it did not correlate with the occurrence of GCD (d-g). SZ-8 demonstrated focal granule cell loss as well as gliosis (h,i). Enhanced gliosis was never observed in the studied control sections (j, l, n, p), except mildly in one case (r). Although a few CD163+ cells were observed in epilepsy and control sections (black arrows; c, g, i, m, s), the number of M2 macrophages were not significantly different between control and seizure sections (c, e, g, i, k, m, o, q, s). Arrowhead, outer granular zone distal to hilus; open arrowhead, inner granular zone proximal to hilus. Scalebars: 50 μm (b-s)

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