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Table 1 Rodent TBI injury models. Controlled cortical impact (CCI), Fluid percussion injury (FPI), Penetrating ballistic brain injury (PBBI), and closed head injury (CHI) weight drop are the most commonly used injury methods

From: Biological links between traumatic brain injury and Parkinson’s disease

ModelInjury typePreparatory surgeryRodent
BlastDiffuseNoneMouse [48], Rat [69]
CCIFocalCraniotomyMouse [141], Rat [35]
 MiddleMixedCraniotomyRat [102]
 LateralMixedCraniotomyMouse [17], Rat [103]
 RepetitiveDiffuseCraniotomyRat [34]
PBBIFocalCranial incision, burr holeRat [162]
Weight drop
 BucheleDiffuseCranial incisionRat [16]
 CitronRepetitive, diffuseNoneMouse [133]
 MarmarouDiffuseCranial incision, reflected periosteumRat [96]
 Maryland modelDiffuseInfraorbital incisions, temporary implantRat [73]
 PickDiffuseNoneMouse [169]
 ShohamiFocalCranial incisionMouse [23], Rat [140]