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Table 1 Brain lesion categories encountered in the German Neuropathology Reference Center for Epilepsy Surgery

From: Low-grade developmental and epilepsy associated brain tumors: a critical update 2020

Category Numbers Age @ Onset Disease Duration Age @ Surgery
HS 2144 (31.2%) 11,4 22,7 34,1
Dual 262 (3.9%) 8,6 14,6 23,3
Tumors 1680 (25.9%) 15,4 11,5 26,8
Malformations 1238 (18.3%) 6,0 12,1 18,3
No Lesion 542 (8%) 11,9 15,0 27,9
Vascular 369 (5.5%) 23,1 12,7 35,9
Scars 344 (5.1%) 9,7 14,9 25,3
Encephalitis 138 (2%) 13,2 7,7 20,7
Double 30 (0.4%) 7,0 14,8 21,4
Total 6747 11,8 16,1 27,9
  1. HS-Hippocampal sclerosis; Dual-dual pathology includes HS with any other principle lesion such as tumors, malformations of cortical development (excluding associated FCD Type IIIA according to the ILAE classification of 2013); vascular malformations, glial scars (excluding postsurgical scars), or encephalitis; Tumors see Table 2; Malformations of cortical development include Focal Cortical Dysplasia (ILAE classification of 2011), polymicrogyria, hemimegalencephaly, hypothalamic hamartoma or cortical tubers; No lesion – microscopic inspection of surgical sample could not reveal any specific lesion entity, including no-HS and gliosis only; Vascular malformations include cavernoma and meningoangiomatosis in Sturge-Weber syndrome, but not ischemic stroke or hypertensive hemorrhages; glial or glio-mesodermal scars include traumatic brain injury and any pre−/peri- or postnatal stroke lesion, excluding postsurgical scaring; Encephalitis includes Rasmussen, limbic or other focal infection; Double pathology represents a combination of at least 2 principal lesions, excluding HS; Age at onset, duration of epilepsy and age at surgery in years