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Table 1 Brain lesion categories encountered in the German Neuropathology Reference Center for Epilepsy Surgery

From: Low-grade developmental and epilepsy associated brain tumors: a critical update 2020

CategoryNumbersAge @ OnsetDisease DurationAge @ Surgery
HS2144 (31.2%)11,422,734,1
Dual262 (3.9%)8,614,623,3
Tumors1680 (25.9%)15,411,526,8
Malformations1238 (18.3%)6,012,118,3
No Lesion542 (8%)11,915,027,9
Vascular369 (5.5%)23,112,735,9
Scars344 (5.1%)9,714,925,3
Encephalitis138 (2%)13,27,720,7
Double30 (0.4%)7,014,821,4
  1. HS-Hippocampal sclerosis; Dual-dual pathology includes HS with any other principle lesion such as tumors, malformations of cortical development (excluding associated FCD Type IIIA according to the ILAE classification of 2013); vascular malformations, glial scars (excluding postsurgical scars), or encephalitis; Tumors see Table 2; Malformations of cortical development include Focal Cortical Dysplasia (ILAE classification of 2011), polymicrogyria, hemimegalencephaly, hypothalamic hamartoma or cortical tubers; No lesion – microscopic inspection of surgical sample could not reveal any specific lesion entity, including no-HS and gliosis only; Vascular malformations include cavernoma and meningoangiomatosis in Sturge-Weber syndrome, but not ischemic stroke or hypertensive hemorrhages; glial or glio-mesodermal scars include traumatic brain injury and any pre−/peri- or postnatal stroke lesion, excluding postsurgical scaring; Encephalitis includes Rasmussen, limbic or other focal infection; Double pathology represents a combination of at least 2 principal lesions, excluding HS; Age at onset, duration of epilepsy and age at surgery in years