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Fig. 2 | Acta Neuropathologica Communications

Fig. 2

From: Triiodothyronine modulates neuronal plasticity mechanisms to enhance functional outcome after stroke

Fig. 2

Treatment with T3 50 μg/kg improves functional recovery 14 days after photothrombosis (PT) without affecting infarct size. a Difference between the rotating pole test (rpt) scores from day 2 (selective sorting) and 14 (Δd2-d14) at 10 rotations per minute to the right and to the left sides, from mice subjected to PT (right hemisphere). Scores are shown as individual data and group median. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney test (p = 0.0021 in T3 50 μg/kg versus Vehicle treatment). Vehicle (n = 11), T3 5 μg/kg (n = 10), T3 50 μg/kg (n = 11), T4 5 μg/kg (n = 10), T4 50 μg/kg (n = 9). b Representative coronal brain sections from stroke mice treated with Vehicle, T3 50 μg/kg or T4 50 μg/kg. Staining with NeuN was performed to measure cortical infarcts. Infarct volumes are displayed as means ± SEM. On day 14 after PT in mice treated with Vehicle (n = 10), T3 5 μg/kg (n = 8), T3 50 μg/kg (n = 8), T4 5 μg/kg (n = 7) or T4 50 μg/kg (n = 7). Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni’s multiple comparisons test. c Thyroid hormone receptors (TR) α1 and TRβ1 (AF488, green) expression in mouse brain cell populations. Both TR isoforms are expressed in NeuN (Cy5, blue) positive neurons and Parvalbumin (Cy3, red) positive neurons. GFAP (Cy3, red) immunoreactive astrocytes express TRβ1 in the ischemic territory, 14 days after PT. Scale bars 50 μm and 10 μm for insets at higher magnification. d Levels of TRα1 and e TRβ1 in the infarct core and peri-infarct area were analyzed 14 days after PT and after treatment with Vehicle (n = 3), T3 50 μg/kg (n = 3) or T4 50 μg/kg (n = 3). No difference was observed in levels of TRα1 and TRβ1. f Levels of TRα1 and g TRβ1 in the grey matter of human brain in non-stroke (Ctrl), and stroke cases, including the peri-infarct (PI) and infarct core (IC). For uncropped images of western blots see Additional file 1: Figure S5. Levels of TRβ1 are increased in the IC. Statistical analysis was performed by One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni’s multiple comparisons test. Two-tailed unpaired Student’s t test was employed to determine p values. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM

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