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Table 4 Fixative solutions reported by the included studies

From: Perfusion fixation in brain banking: a systematic review

Study Fixative solution Buffer Drive Time Amount Flow rate Pressure
Adickes 1996 [2] 10% buffered formalin NR Gravity 15–20 min 2 l 100–133 ml/min 75.6 mmHg (height of 1 m)
Adickes 1997 [1] 10% buffered formalin Phosphate Gravity 15–20 min 2 l 100–133 ml/min 75.6 mmHg (height of 1 m)
Alvernia 2010 [3] Formaldehyde 37% and ethyl alcohol 10% NR Syringe (60 ml) NR NR NR NR
Beach 1987 [7] 4% paraformaldehyde (ice cold) 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) Pump 40–80 min 4 l 50–100 ml/min NR
Benet 2014 [9] 10% formaldehyde NR NR NR 0.7 l NR NR
Benet 2014 [9] Custom solution: ethanol 62.4%, glycerol 17%, phenol 10.2%, formaldehyde 2.3%, and water 8.1% NR NR NR 0.7 l NR NR
Böhm 1983 [12] 2% glutaraldehyde 0.2 M phosphate buffer Gravity 5–10 min 5–10 l ~ 1000 ml/min 25.7–47.8 mmHg
Coveñas 2003 [20] 4% paraformaldehyde 0.15 M PBS (pH 7.2) NR NR 3 l NR “Normal mean arterial pressure”
de Oliveira 2012 [23] 20% formalin NR Gravity NR 5 Ll NR NR
Donckaster 1963 [24] Cajal fixative: formalin and ammonium bromide NR NR NR 900 ml (300 ml in children < 12 years old) NR <  200 mmHg
Feekes 2005 [28] 10% formalin NR NR NR NR NR NR
Feekes 2005 [28] 2.5% formaldehyde, 6% isopropyl alcohol, 1% glycerin NR NR NR NR NR NR
Grinberg 2008 [34] 10% formalin None Gravity NR 5 l NR 147.4 mmHg (height of 2 m*)
Grinberg 2008 [34] 20% formalin None Gravity NR 5 l NR 147.4 mmHg
Grinberg 2008 [34] 70% ethanol None Gravity NR 5 l NR 147.4 mmHg
Grinberg 2008 [34] Acetic acid-alcohol-formalin None Gravity NR 5 l NR 147.4 mmHg
Halliday 1988 [35] 4% formaldehyde, 2% picric acid; followed by 10% sucrose in fixative 0.1 M sodium phosphate Pump NR 10 l fixative only; 4 l 10% sucrose in fixative NR “Normal mean arterial pressure”
Huang 1993 [40] 4% paraformaldehyde 0.1 M phosphate buffer NR 83 mins 10 l 120 ml/min NR
Insausti 1995 [42] 4% paraformaldehyde (4 °C) or 4% paraformaldehyde, 0.02% picric acid (4 °C) NR NR 120 mins 4 l or 8 l 33 or 67 ml/min NR
Istomin 1994 [43] 10–12% formalin Neutral buffered Syringe or Gravity NR NR NR 150 mmHg
Kalimo 1974 [45] 1.0% paraformaldehyde, 2.0% glutaraldehyde (37 °C) 0.1 M cacodylate (pH 7.4) Gravity NR 1.5 l (adult), 0.7 l (newborn) NR 132 mmHg
Latini 2015 [53] 12% formalin NR Infusion device (compressed air mechanism)* 15–20 min 2 l 100–133 ml/min 1500 mmHg (200 kPa)
Lin 2000 [57] 4% paraformaldehyde, 0.2% picric acid, and 0.1% glutaraldehyde 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) NR NR NR NR NR
Lyck 2008 [58] 4% formalin 75 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) NR NR NR NR NR
Masawa 1993 [59] 4% formalin, 1% glutaraldehyde 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) NR NR 400 ml NR 100 mmHg
Masawa 1994 [60] 10% buffered formalin NR NR NR NR NR 100 mmHg
McGeer 1988 [62] 4% paraformaldehyde, 0.1% glutaraldehyde 0.1% phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) NR NR NR NR NR
McKenzie 1994 [64] 10% formalin Neutral buffered Gravity 60 mins 12–14 l 200–233 ml/min 75.6 mmHg (height of 1 m)
Nakamura 1991 [69] 4% paraformaldehyde, 0.1% glutaraldehyde (ice cold) 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) Pump 15 mins 1 l 70–80 ml/min NR
Pakkenberg 1966 [70] Alcohol 80% 9 parts, formalin 4% 1 part NR NR NR NR NR NR
Sharma 2006 [79] 20% formalin Neutral buffered NR NR NR NR NR
Shinkai 1976 [81] 2.5% glutaraldehyde containing 0.2 M sucrose 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) NR NR NR NR NR
Sutoo 1994 [85] 4% paraformaldehyde, 0.2% glutaraldehyde PBS NR 90 mins 6 l 67 ml/min NR
Suzuki 1979 [86] 2.5% glutaraldehyde Phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) NR 5–10 min NR NR NR
Tanaka 1975 [87] 2% glutaraldehyde, 1% paraformaldehyde (pH 7.2) 0.1 M sodium cacodylate NR NR 0.7 l NR NR
Torack 1990 [90] 4% paraformaldehyde (4 °C) 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) NR 30 mins 1.68 l (560 ml in each artery) 50 ml/min “40 lbs. of pressure”
Turkoglu 2014 [92] 10% formaldehyde NR Gravity 60 mins NR NR 110.4 mmHg (height of 1.5 m)
von Keyserlingk 1984 [93] 1% paraformaldehyde, 1% glutaraldehyde, 1.65% potassium dichromate 0.1 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) NR NR 5 l NR NR
Waldvogel 2006 [96] 15% formalin 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) Pump 30–45 min 2 l ~  33 ml/min NR
Welikovitch 2018 [99] 4% paraformaldehyde, 0.05% glutaraldehyde, and 0.2% picric acid 0.1 M phosphate buffer Gravity* 90–120 min 4–5 l 33–56 ml/min NR
  1. This table lists the fixatives solutions and their buffers, amounts, times for perfusion, flow rates, methods for driving perfusate, and/or perfusion pressures that are reported by the included studies. If gravity was used to drive perfusate, we used the formula P = ρgh, where P = hydrostatic pressure, ρ = density of substance (assumed equal to water), g = gravitational acceleration, and h = height, to calculate the pressure. Asterisks indicate personal communications. NR: Not reported, PBS: Phosphate-buffered saline