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Table 3 Washout solutions used by the included studies

From: Perfusion fixation in brain banking: a systematic review

Study Base solution Additives Drive method Time Amount Rate Pressure Stopping criterion
Alvernia 2010 [3] Warm tap water NR Syringe (60 ml) NR 2–4 l NR NR Until water flow was clear (clot/debris removal)
Beach 1987 [7] Ice cold PBS NR Pump 10–20 min 1 l 50–100 ml/min NR NR
Benet 2014 [9] Isotonic saline NR NR NR NR NR “Low pressure” Until contralateral outflow was clear
Böhm 1983 [12] Ringer solution in 0.2 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) Rheomacrodex (Dextran 40) Gravity 5–10 min 5 l 500–1000 ml/min NR Until blood and blood clots were washed away
Coveñas 2003 [20] 0.15 M PBS (pH 7.2) NR Pump NR 1 l NR NR NR
de Oliveira 2012 [23] Mannitol Warm heparin Gravity NR 250 ml NR NR NR
Donckaster 1963 [24] Physiological saline NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
Grinberg 2008 [34] NaCl 0.9% NR Gravity* NR NR NR 147.4 mmHg (height of 2 m*) NR
Grinberg 2008 [34] 20% Mannitol Heparin Gravity* NR 250 ml NR 147.4 mmHg NR
Halliday 1988 [35] 0.1 M Sodium phoshate (pH 7.4) 1% sodium nitrite Pump NR 5 l NR “Normal mean arterial pressure” NR
Huang 1993 [40] PBS NR NR 33 mins 4 l 120 ml/min NR NR
Insausti 1995 [42] Saline at 4 °C Heparin, 10,000 units NR 20 mins 2 l 100 ml/min NR NR
Istomin 1994 [43] Saline NR Gravity or Syringe NR NR NR 150 mmHg Clear fluid flow from the veins
Kalimo 1974 [45] NaCl 0.9% NR Gravity <= 5 mins NR NR NR NR
Lin 2000 [57] 0.01 M PBS (pH 7.4) NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
Nakamura 1991 [69] 0.01 M sodium-PBS (pH 7.4) NR Pump NR 1 l NR NR NR
Sutoo 1994 [85] Ice cold PBS (pH 7.4) NR NR NR 2 l NR NR NR
Torack 1990 [90] PBS NR NR NR 180 ml (60 ml in each vessel) NR NR NR
Turkoglu 2014 [92] Saline NR Gravity NR 3 l NR 110 mmHg (height of 1.5 m) Until no visible blood or clots drained from the IJVs
Waldvogel 2006 [96] PBS (pH 7.4) 1% sodium nitrite Pump 15 mins 0.5 l ~  33 ml/min NR 15 min or until the brain is cleared of blood
Welikovitch 2018 [99] Physiological saline 0.33% heparin Gravity 30 mins 1.5 l 50 ml/min NR NR
  1. If the study is not listed here, then it did not report the use of a washout solution. If gravity was used to drive perfusate, we used the formula P = ρgh, where P = hydrostatic pressure, ρ = density of substance (assumed equal to water), g = gravitational acceleration, and h = height, to calculate the pressure. Asterisks indicate personal communications. NR: Not reported, PBS: Phosphate-buffered saline, IJV: Internal jugular vein