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Table 1 Demographic details, clinical and pathological features in cases used for microvascular quantification

From: White matter capillaries in vascular and neurodegenerative dementias

Variable Young Controls Ageing Controls PSND AD DLB PDD Mixed 1 Mixed 2 VaD PSD
Number of subjects 9 16 18 18 16 13 17 14 13 19
Age, years, mean (range) 61.1↓(55–68)* 86.9 (72–99) 84.7 (79–91) 87.8 (76–96) 79.6 (69–96) 72.8 (64–81) 83.0 (72–93) 84.7 (72–94) 88.1 (75–98) 87.5 (80–98)
Gender, number (F/M) 5 / 4 12 / 4 9 / 9 9 / 9 7 / 9 5 / 8 13 / 4 8 / 6 6 / 7 13 / 6
Total CAMCOG score (/100), mean (range) N/A N/A 88.0↑ (83–93)* 44.0 (20–73) 53.8 (24–80) 61.1 (39–74) 51.0 (23–68) 50.5 (41–61) 62.0 (25–80) 61.5 (24–80)
Memory sub-score (/27), mean ± SEM N/A N/A 21.4 ± 1.4↑* 10.0 ± 0.9 14.9 ± 1.1 16.2 ± 1.1 13.5 ± 1.6 N/A 14.4 ± 1.4 15.0 ± 2.2
Executive sub-score (/28), mean ± SEM N/A N/A 16.6 ± 1.2↑* 12.3 ± 0.6 12.1 ± 1.5 9.6 ± 0.9 11.2 ± 0.8 N/A 10.8 ± 1.2 11.1 ± 1.9
MMSE score (/30), mean (range) N/A N/A 27.3↑ (26–30)* 8.5 (0–16) 13.8 (6–20) 14.2 (3–20) 11.9 (2–19) 14.0 (12–16) 17.3↑ (8–24) 16.5 (12–20)
Braak Stage, mean (range) 0.25 (0–1) 1.9 (0–4) 2.6 (1–4) 5.6↑ (5–6)** 2.3 (0–4) 2.1 (0–4) 4.9↑ (2–6)** 5.2↑ (5–6)** 2.0 (0–4) 2.6 (1–4)
CERAD, mean (range) 0.0 (0–0) 0.5 (0–2) 1.7 (1–2) 2.9↑ (2–3)** 1.3 (0–3) 0.3 (0–2) 2.7↑ (0–3)** 2.9↑ (2–3)** 1.0 (0–2) 1.3 (1–3)
Vascular pathology score, mean (range) N/A 6.7↓ (0–10) 13.5 (13–14) 10.8 (3–16) 9.6 (7–13) 9.8 (7–14) 10.6 (3–13) 11.0 (6–14) 13.2↑ (10–16) 13.3↑ (9–17)
WML score, mean (range) N/A 0.5↓ (0–2)§ 2.5↑ (2–3)ψ 1.7 (0–3) 1.7 (1–3) 1.8 (1–3) 1.6 (0–3) 2.8↑(2–3)ψ 2.9↑(2–3)ψ 2.4↑(2–3)ψ
White matter/Vascular lesions, moderate - severe (%) N/A 17.6↓** 100 72 75 92 88 95 100 100
Lewy body pathology, number (limbic/neocortical) 0 / 0 0 / 0 0 / 0 0 / 1 3 / 11 3 / 7 3 / 5 0 / 0 4 / 0 0 / 0
Neuronal loss in substantia nigra, number (none/mild/moderate/severe) N/A N/A 18 / 0 / 0 / 0 7 / 8 / 2 / 0 0 / 3 / 6 / 6 0 / 1 / 2 / 9 3 / 4 / 7 / 2 14 / 0 / 0 / 0 7 / 4 / 2 / 0 19 / 0 / 0 / 0
  1. Mixed dementia 1: 7 = AD+DLB, 6 = AD+VaD, 3 = AD+DLB + VaD and 1 = PDD + DLB + VaD; Mixed dementia 2: all with AD and VaD pathology
  2. Age, *P < 0.01 vs Ageing Controls and all dementia groups; Total CAMCOG score, CAMCOG executive and memory sub-score and MMSE score, *P < 0.01 vs all dementia groups;
  3. Braak Stage, **P < 0.01 vs Young Controls, Ageing Controls, DLB, PDD and VaD; **P < 0.05 vs PSD and PSND; CERAD, **P < 0.01 vs Young Controls. Ageing Controls, DLB, PDD, VaD, PSD and PSND
  4. ♯Vascular Pathology Score [10], P < 0.01 vs all dementia groups; P < 0.01 vs DLB and PDD; P < 0.05 vs Mixed 1; WML score, §P < 0.01 vs all dementia groups; ψP < 0.01 vs AD, DLB, PDD and Mixed 1; White matter/Vascular lesions, moderate-severe (%) **P < 0.01 vs all dementia groups; Lewy body pathology, only the number of limbic/neocortical cases are shown. Fourteen Ageing Controls, 15 AD, 6 Mixed 1, all Mixed 2, 9 VaD, all PSD and PSND cases had no Lewy body pathology. Two Ageing Controls, 1 AD, 1 DLB and 2 Mixed 1 showed Lewy body pathology in brain stem. Data were not available for 1 case in DLB and PDD groups due to limited autopsy; Neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, data was not available for 1 case in each group other than VaD, PSD and PSND due to limited autopsy
  5. Abbreviations: AD Alzheimer’s disease, CAMCOG Cambridge Cognition Examination, CERAD Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease, DLB Dementia with Lewy Bodies, F female, M male, Mixed 1, Mixed dementia 1 with AD, DLB, PDD and VaD; Mixed 2, Mixed dementia 2 with AD and VaD, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, PDD Parkinson’s disease with dementia, PSD post-stroke dementia, PSND post-stroke no dementia, VaD Vascular dementia, WML white matter lesion