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Table 5 Comparison of the inflammatory protein loads (%) in control and Alzheimer’s cases

From: Systemic infection modifies the neuroinflammatory response in late stage Alzheimer’s disease

  Ctrl- Ctrl+ AD- AD+ Mean difference (95% CI) P value
Grey Matter
 Iba1 1.63 ± 0.88 1.81 ± 1.14 1.31 ± 0.75 1.35 ± 1.14   ns
 CD68a 0.21 ± 0.08 0.25 ± 0.05 0.29 ± 0.14 0.28 ± 0.14 0.06 (0.007, 0.103) 0.026
 HLA-DR 0.03 ± 0.05 0.04 ± 0.07 0.12 ± 0.16 0.11 ± 0.27   ns
 CD64a 2.01 ± 0.85 2.26 ± 1.35 3.16 ± 1.57 2.97 ± 1.55 0.93 (0.36, 1.45) 0.002
 CD32a 0.43 ± 0.33 0.46 ± 0.61 0.45 ± 0.58 0.36 ± 0.46   ns
 CD32ba 0.08 ± 0.10 0.10 ± 0.10 0.29 ± 0.52 0.42 ± 1.00 0.27 (−0.001, 0.54) ns
 CD16b 0.35 ± 0.39 0.86 ± 1.25 0.98 ± 0.90 0.67 ± 0.93 Ctrl+: 0.51 (− 0.07, 1.08) 0.084
AD-: 0.62 (0.13, 1.12) 0.014
AD+: 0.31 (−0.15, 0.78) 0.179
 CHI3L1a 0.24 ± 0.22 0.37 ± 0.36 0.57 ± 0.62 0.73 ± 0.96 0.34 (0.07, 0.62) 0.016
 IL4Ra 0.09 ± 0.08 0.07 ± 0.06 0.23 ± 0.33 0.20 ± 0.24 0.14 (0.04, 0.23) 0.005
 CCR2a 0.12 ± 0.14 0.09 ± 0.08 0.74 ± 1.49 0.38 ± 0.50 0.46 (0.11, 0.80) 0.010
White Matter
 Iba1 1.46 ± 1.03 2.13 ± 1.52 1.27 ± 1.02 1.43 ± 1.13   ns
 CD68b 0.11 ± 0.10 0.23 ± 0.17 0.36 ± 0.22 0.28 ± 0.24 Ctrl+: 0.12 (− 0.01, 0.25) 0.076
AD-: 0.25 (0.14, 037) < 0.001
AD+: 0.17 (0.06, 0.27) 0.003
 HLA-DR 0.05 ± 0.08 0.03 ± 0.06 0.15 ± 0.24 0.09 ± 0.23   ns
 CD64b 0.70 ± 0.42 1.95 ± 1.46 1.36 ± 0.89 1.65 ± 1.02 Ctrl+: 1.25 (0.63, 1.87) < 0.001
AD-: 0.66 (0.12, 1.2) 0.017
AD+: 0.95 (0.45, 1.45) < 0.001
 CD32aa 0.58 ± 0.67 0.48 ± 0.52 0.34 ± 0.46 0.27 ± 0.37 −0.23 (− 0.43, 0.02) 0.030
 CD16 0.10 ± 0.14 0.31 ± 0.51 0.28 ± 0.30 0.23 ± 0.49   ns
 CHI3L1 0.23 ± 0.26 0.50 ± 0.57 0.69 ± 0.73 0.62 ± 1.12   ns
 CCR2 0.06 ± 0.11 0.12 ± 0.13 0.30 ± 0.55 0.18 ± 0.46   ns
  1. Values are mean ± SD; significant p value in italic
  2. aAlzheimer’s effect
  3. bOne-way ANOVA test performed following significant Alzheimer’s disease*infection interaction on the 2-way ANOVA analysis
  4. ns, non-significant following the 2-way ANOVA analysis
  5. Ctrl neurologically/cognitively normal controls, AD Alzheimer’s disease cases, − died without systemic infection, + died with systemic infection, SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval