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Table 1 Observed cumulative incidence of radiation-associated malignancies in survivors of pediatric medulloblastoma

From: Medulloblastoma therapy generates risk of a poorly-prognostic H3 wild-type subgroup of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma: a report from the International DIPG Registry

Source Population Size of cohort Number of secondary malignant neoplasms Number of gliomas Number of DIPG (cumulative incidence %) Median follow-up (years)
COG A9961 (Packer et al. 2013) [31] December 1996–2000, age 3–21 years, average-risk only 397 15 7 2 (0.5) 9.7
HIT’91 (Von Hoff et al. 2009) [42] August 1991–December 1997, age 3–18 years 280 12 4 1 (0.4) 10
HIT-SIOP-PNET4 (Sabel et al. 2016) [36] 2001–2006, age 4–21 years, average risk only 338 3 2 1 (0.3) 7.8
CCG 9892 (Packer et al. 1999) [30] January 1990–December 1994, age 3–10 years, average risk only 65 1 1 1 (1.5) 4.7
Single institution (Michigan Medicine) Pediatric patients diagnosed with medulloblastoma and treated between 2000 and 2015 77 Not reported Not reported 3 (3.9) Not reported
Single institution (Seattle Children’s Hospital) Pediatric patients diagnosed with medulloblastoma and treated between 2000 and 2015 91 Not reported Not reported 1 (1.0) Not reported
Single institution (Hospital for Sick Children) Pediatric patients diagnosed with medulloblastoma and treated between 2000 and 2015 140 Not reported Not reported 1 (0.7) Not reported
Single institution (Princess Margaret Hospital for Children) Pediatric patients diagnosed with medulloblastoma and treated between 2000 and 2015 41 Not reported Not reported 1 (2.4) Not reported