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Table 3 Comparison of HAE with MS and EAE Models

From: Autoimmune encephalitis in humans: how closely does it reflect multiple sclerosis ?

MS Pathology AcuteMS Progr. MS Case HAE Marmoset MOG EAE Mouse MOG EAE
Demyelination      
DM Plaques yes yes yes yes yesa
Perivenous / Confluent yes yes yes yes yes
Periventricular yes yes yes yes no
Slowly expanding lesions no yes no no no
Dawson Fingers yes yes yes yes no
Leukocortical Lesions yes yes yes yes no
Intractortical Lesions yes yes yes yes no
Subpial lesions few many few yes no
Shadow plaques few var no yes no
Pattern II DM      
C9neo Deposition var few yes yes no
Ig Deposition var var yes yes no
Macrophage association yes yes yes yes yes
Pattern III DM      
Pre-phagocytic Lesions var few no no no
Oligodendrocyte Apoptosis var var no no no
Concentric DM Pattern var rare no no no
Axonal / Neuronal Pathology      
Relative axonal pres. yes yes yes yes no
Acute injury in act. lesions yes yes yes few yes
Diffuse axonal Injury few mod few few few
Retrograde Neurodegeneration few yes few n.d. yes
Astrocyte Pathology      
Protoplasmic gliosis in active lesions yes yes yes mild yes
Creutzfeldt Peters Cells many few many no no
Fibrillary Gliosis in inactive lesions yes yes yes yes yes
Aquaporin 4 loss Var (Pat III) no no n.d. no
Inflammation      
CD3 many many many many many
CD4 few few single n.d. many
CD8 many many many n.d. few
CD20 mod mod massive mod few
Plasma Cells mod mod mod mod few
Follicle like structures var var yes yes no
IgG PC many many few mod n.d.
IgA PC few few few n.d. n.d.
IgM PC few few many few n.d.
PCNA CD8 yes yes yes n.d. n.d.
PCNA CD20 yes yes yes n.d. n.d.
Microglia / Macrophages      
Iba1 (active lesions) many many many many many
CD68 (active lesions) many many many n.d. many
NADPH oxidase microglia many many many n.d. no
Microglia nodules many mod many few no
Diffuse activation NAWM/GM mod massive mod no mod
Iron Related Pathology      
Iron accumulation in NAWM/GM Age related Age related Profound (age) no no
Iron loss in lesions yes yes yes no no
Extracellular iron yes yes yes no no
Uptake in Macrophages / MG yes yes yes few no
Iron loss in PPWM yes yes no no no
Oxidative Injury      
Ox Lipids OG and Myelin yes yes few (iron) no no
Ox lipids neurons yes yes few (iron) no no
EBV      
EBER positive B-cells no no no n.d. n.d.
  1. Acute MS Marburg type of acute MS, Progr. MS primary or secondary progressive MS, Case HAE human autoimmune encephalitis, described in this study, Marmoset MOG EAE chronic EAE induced in marmosets by active sensitization with recombinant myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant, Mouse MOG EAE chronic EAE in C57Bl6 mice induced by active sensitization with MOG35–55 peptide
  2. Yesa: white matter lesions in chronic mouse EAE are mainly due to massive axonal destruction and secondary demyelination
  3. Mod moderate, mild mild, few(iron) only few cells in lesions with high iron content