Skip to main content
Fig. 4 | Acta Neuropathologica Communications

Fig. 4

From: Autoimmune encephalitis in humans: how closely does it reflect multiple sclerosis ?

Fig. 4

Iron deposition and oxidative injury in HAE: a: Related to white matter lesions a moderate iron deposition is seen in the peri-plaque white matter (left side), while very little iron is present in the active edge of the lesion; in the lesion center numerous iron containing macrophages are present (right side); b: In contrast, in lesions in the basal ganglia massive iron deposition is present in the peri-plaque grey matter and a high content of iron containing macrophages and microglia (left side) are seen within the lesion (right side); c: Higher magnification shows the presence of iron in oligodendrocytes and myelin in the normal appearing white matter; d, e: in basal ganglia lesions iron is mainly seen in microglia and macrophages (d), but is also present in the form of small extracellular iron granules (e); f-j: Oxidative injury is visualized by the cytoplasmic accumulation of oxidized phospholipids (E06 reactivity); it is mainly seen in basal ganglia lesions in neurons (f, g) in dystrophic axons (i) and in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (j); as described before in MS lesions E06 reactivity is present diffusely within the cytoplasm of neurons and oligodendrocytes, while in astrocytes (j) it is sequestered in cytoplasmic granules, possibly reflecting autophagy of damaged cell components; only very few cortical neurons show cytoplasmic accumulation of oxidized phospholipids at sites of lesion activity (h). k, l: Cells with nuclear EBV / EBER reactivity are present in high numbers in a control case of EBV positive cerebral lymphoma (k), while no single cell with EBER reactivity is seen in the inflammatory cuffs or the lesion parenchyma in the HAE case

Back to article page