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Fig. 3 | Acta Neuropathologica Communications

Fig. 3

From: Autoimmune encephalitis in humans: how closely does it reflect multiple sclerosis ?

Fig. 3

Patterns of inflammation in HAE: a: Within the demyelinating lesions a very pronounced inflammatory reaction is seen, characterized by the presence of numerous densely packed perivascular inflammatory cuffs; b, c, d: The inflammatory cuffs contain high numbers of CD3+ and CD8+, but only exceptionally CD4+ T-cells; the insert in c shows the single CD4+ T-cells within the entire inflammatory cuff at high magnification; CD3+ and CD8+ T-cells are also seen diffusely infiltrating the lesion parenchym (d, d). e: CD20+ B-cells are the dominant leukocyte population within the perivascular cuffs; f: In addition to T-cells and B-cells the inflammatory infiltrates also contain CD138+ plasma cells, shown at high magnification in the insert; note that the T-cells, B-cells and plasma cells are located in different sub-regions of the cuff, similar to that seen in lymph follicle like structures, present in chronic inflammatory conditions; g-i: The majority of plasma cells within the infiltrates contain IgM (i), while the number of IgG (g) and IgA (h) positive plasma cells is low; j: IgM containing plasma cells are also diffusely dispersed in the lesion parenchyma; k: at the lesion edge IgM is seen associated with myelinated fibers; l-n: Double staining of sections with the proliferation marker PCNA and leukocyte markers shows local proliferation of CD8+ T-cells and CD20+ B-cells in perivascular cuffs, while in the parenchyma of the lesion only proliferating CD8+ T-cells are seen

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