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Fig. 2 | Acta Neuropathologica Communications

Fig. 2

From: Autoimmune encephalitis in humans: how closely does it reflect multiple sclerosis ?

Fig. 2

Demyelination and gliosis in active white matter lesions: a: Activity at the edge of the lesion is associated with densely packed activated macrophages and microglia, expressing NADPH oxidase; profound activation of microglia is also seen in the peri-plaque white matter; the insert show the presence of luxol fast blue positive myelin degradation products within macrophages; b: In the peri-plaque white matter numerous microglia nodules are present, expressing NADPH oxidase; c: At the active lesion edge profound deposition of activated complement (C9neo antigen) is visible, which appears to dress degenerating myelin (insert); d, e: Staining for phosphorylated neurofilament shows reduction of axonal density within the lesion (e) in comparison to the peri-plaque white matter (d); axonal spheroids or end bulbs are mainly present at the lesion edge (e, insert); f: dystrophic axons at the lesion edge show accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) as a sign of disturbed axonal transport; g, h: Profound protoplasmic astrocytic gliosis is seen in sections stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP); some of the astrocytes resemble the pathological changes of Creutzfeldt Peters cells (insert in h). i: Fibrillary astrocytic gliosis is seen in the demyelinated lesion center

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