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Fig. 1 | Acta Neuropathologica Communications

Fig. 1

From: Autoimmune encephalitis in humans: how closely does it reflect multiple sclerosis ?

Fig. 1

Basic Pathology of HAE: a: Topographical distribution of demyelinated lesions in the brain shows the prominent periventricular demyelination with peri-venous extensions (Dawson Fingers) and demyelinated plaques in the cortex and the deep grey matter nuclei; green: white matter lesions, red: cortical and hippocampal lesions, blue: lesions in thalamus and basal ganglia; the blue dots in the meninges show the location of prominent meningeal inflammatory infiltrates; b: Sections stained with luxol fast blue depicts the demyelinated lesions in the white matter; c: Immunocytochemistry for CD68 shows the accumulation of macrophages at the edge of active white matter lesions; d: Double staining for proteolipid (PLP) protein (red) and mRNA (black) reveals loss of oligodendrocytes within the lesion and the presence of numerous macrophages with PLP degradation products at the lesion edge; e: In sections stained for phosphorylated neurofilament only a mild to moderate reduction of axonal density is seen in the lesions; the insert shows a neuron in the substantia nigra with an α-synuclein reactive Lewy body. f: The section stained for iron shows prominent iron accumulation in the deep grey matter nuclei and at the cortico/subcortical border; some increased iron reactivity is seen within the periventricular demyelinated lesions: g: Subpial cortical lesion in the insular cortex (Fig. 1a ) with selective loss of myelin in the cortex; h, i: The subpial lesions shows an actively demyelinating edge with high density of activated microglia (Iba-1, Fig. 1h ), expressing the phagocytosis associated marker CD68 (Fig. 1i ). j, k: In the meninges, covering the active lesion, inflammatory infiltrates are seen, composed or perivascular T-cells (CD3, Fig. 1j ) and B-cells (CD20, Fig. 1k ); l: The active lesion edge of the cortical lesions contains numerous macrophages with PLP reactive myelin degradation products; m: Activated microglia and macrophages at the lesions edge express NADPH oxidase

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