AMPA induced intense astrogliosis that was prevented by energy substrates. Representative immunohistochemistry of SMI-32 (red) and GFAP (green) of the ipsilateral and contralateral ventral horns at the infused spinal cord region of rats treated as indicated, seven days after minipump implantation. Note that in addition to the loss of MNs, AMPA induced a notable astrogliosis in both ipsilateral and contralateral ventral horns, and that this effect, as that on MN, was prevented by pyruvate and βHB but not by ascorbate and GEE, alone or combined (antioxidants mixture). Micrographs of the ascorbate or GEE alone groups (not shown) are very similar to those shown with the mixture. Fifteen slices/rat were analyzed (7 rats per group). Scale bar = 50 μm.