AMPA-induced MN degeneration and protection by energy substrates. Representative micrographs of the ventral horns of Nissl-stained sections of the infused lumbar spinal cord region of rats treated as indicated, seven days after minipump implantation. AMPA induced an almost complete loss of MN in the infused side (ipsilateral) and a less intense degeneration in the contralateral side, and both effects were clearly prevented by pyruvate and βHB but not by ascorbate or GEE. Quantitative analysis is shown in Figure 4. Scale bar = 100 μm.