Assessment by rotarod (A) and PGE (B) performance of the protection by energy substrates. Pyruvate and βHB significantly prevented the notable motor deficits induced by AMPA in both motor tasks, whereas ascorbate improved the scores on the PGE test but not in the rotarod and GEE was ineffective. Three trials/day/rat were assessed in each motor task. Grey bars highlight the initial, middle and last day of infusion, as shown in Figure 1. Data are mean values ± SEM for the number of rats shown in parentheses. #p < 0.05; ###p < 0.001 vs the corresponding value of the AMPA group.