Quantification by Western blotting and representative Western blots of phosphorylated (A) Akt, (B) mTOR, (C) S6 and (D) 4E-BP1 protein expression in VPA- versus saline (SAL)-exposed rat lateral temporal neocortices. Each sample was normalized to its β-actin, and VPA-exposed values were expressed relative to SAL-exposed. All p-values were calculated by 2-tailed t test. Phospho-Akt: **p = 0.004, SAL, n = 4; VPA, n = 4; phospho-mTOR: ***p < 0.0001, SAL, n = 8; VPA, n = 8; phospho-S6: ***p < 0.0001, SAL, n = 8; VPA, n = 8; phospho-4E-BP1: ***p < 0.0001, SAL, n = 6; VPA, n = 6. Bars indicate mean ± SE. The mean from three independent Western blots per sample was used for statistical analysis.